Rorschach Performance Assessment System® (R-PAS®)

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Acklin, M. W., McDowell, C. J. II, Verschell, M. S., & Chan, D. (2000). Interobserver agreement, intraobserver reliability, and the Rorschach comprehensive system. Journal of Personality Assessment, 74, 15-47.
AbstractInterrater agreement and reliability for the Rorschach have recently come under increasing scrutiny. This is the second report examining methods of Comprehensive System reliability using principles derived from observational methodology and applied behavioral analysis. This study examined a previous nonpatient sample of 20 protocols (N = 412 responses) and also examined a new clinical sample of 20 protocols (N = 374 responses) diagnosed with Research Diagnostic Criteria. Reliability was analyzed at multiple levels of Comprehensive System data, including response level individual codes and coding decisions and ratios, percentages, and derivations from the Structural Summary. With a number of exceptions, most Comprehensive System codes, coding decisions, and summary scores yield acceptable, and in many instances excellent, levels of reliability. Limitations arising from the nature of Rorschach data and Comprehensive System coding criteria are discussed.
Year Published: 2000 Author: Acklin, M. W., Chan, D. , McDowell, C. J. II, Verschell, M. S. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Reliability Tags: Psychopathology
Ales, F., Giromini, L., & Zennaro, A. (2020). Complexity and cognitive engagement in the Rorschach task: An eye-tracking study. Journal of Personality Assessment, 102, 538-550.
AbstractThis study investigated whether complexity and the other related Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) variables in the engagement and cognitive processing domain would associate with eye-tracking measures reflecting increased cognitive engagement and effort while visually scanning the Rorschach inkblots. A nonclinical sample of 71 adult volunteers were administered the Rorschach task while their eye movements were recorded using an eye tracker. Then, the average duration of fixations, the average number of fixations, the average amplitude of saccades, and the average maximum pupil size recorded during the response phase (RP) of the Rorschach administration were correlated with protocol-level, R-PAS variables located in the engagement and cognitive processing. As expected, complexity correlated, with a large effect size (r . .526, p < .01), with the number of fixations occurring during the RP of Rorschach administration. Some other variables related to complexity (e.g., Synthesis, Sy) also produced similar associations. The other eye-tracking variables under examination, however, produced weak or nonsignificant correlations.
Year Published: 2020 Author: Ales, F., Giromini, L., Zennaro, A. Category: Tags: Neuropsychology
Allen, J., & Dana, R. H. (2004). Methodological issues in cross-cultural and multicultural rorschach research. Journal of Personality Assessment, 82, 189-206.
AbstractHermann Rorschach researched the utility of his inkblot experiment to understand psychopathology and cultural differences. Contemporary research with the Rorschach has evaluated its utility as a test, although it may more properly represent a clinical method with somewhat different evaluation criteria. Recent controversy regarding the adequacy of the Rorschach as a test and the adequacy of its normative data has at times distorted and oversimplified important methodological issues inherent in the study of cultural difference. Cultural processes remain a central and inadequately examined variable in Rorschach research; an important emergent area of inquiry is the Rorschach's clinical utility as a cross-cultural assessment instrument. We review multicultural and cross-cultural methodological issues intrinsic to contemporary Rorschach research here. Consideration of cultural issues enlarges and enriches the Rorschach clinical utility debate and suggests underexplored research strategies that can contribute to its resolution.
Year Published: 2004 Author: Allen, J., Dana, R. H. Category: Norms, Reliability, Validity Tags:
Ando, A., Pignolo, C., Viglione, D., Zennaro, A., Cristofanelli, S., & Ferro, L. (2019). Assessing the personality profile with ADHD characteristics using the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS). Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28, 1196-1206.
AbstractObjectives: Assessment of ADHD typically includes rating scales completed by parents, teachers, and/or patients themselves. However, rating scales may be subject to rater bias effects, and raters may not recognize the patient’s implicit qualities and underlying personality processes. In contrast, the Rorschach test permits standardized, in vivo observation and coding of behaviors as outcomes of implicit personality processes, and, thus, it may assist clinicians in the formulation of contextualized treatment decisions. By using the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS), a performance-based personality test characterized by empirical foundation and psychometric efficiency, we conducted an observational study to investigate in depth personality and its implicit qualities in children with ADHD who were not on medication. Methods: After reviewing thoroughly the previous studies on ADHD and the Rorschach and discussing their contradictory findings, we compared the data of our sample (N = 31) with the R-PAS normative children’s group. Results: Several Rorschach variables differed from R-PAS norms and indicated the presence of unconventional perceptions characterized by non-cognitively mediated interactions and difficulties mentalizing human behavior. Conclusions: Overall, it appears that hyperactivity and impulsivity are associated with unconventional and sometimes mistaken processing of information especially relevant to people and relationships. Although we compared the Rorschach profiles to norms rather than a matched control group, our findings could provide useful information for understanding the personality functioning beyond manifest symptoms or symptom reports of children with ADHD.
Year Published: 2019 Author: Ando, A., Cristofanelli, S., Ferro, L., Pignolo, C., Viglione, D. J., Zennaro, A. Category: Child/Adolescent Tags: Psychopathology
Ando, A., Pineda, J. A., Giromini, L., Soghoyan, G., QunYang, Bohm, M., Maryanovsky, D., Zennaro, A. (2018). Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on attribution of movement to ambiguous stimuli and EEG mu suppression. Brain Research. Advance online publication. 69-76.
AbstractRecent research suggests that attributing human movement to ambiguous and static Rorschach stimuli (M responses) is associated with EEG mu suppression, and that disrupting the left inferior gyrus (LIFG; a putative area implicated in mirroring activity) decreases the tendency to see human movement when exposed to the Rorschach ambiguous stimuli. The current study aimed to test whether disrupting the LIFG via repetitive transcranial stimulation (rTMS) would decrease both the number of human movement attributions and EEG mu suppression. Each participant was exposed to the Rorschach stimuli twice, i.e., during a baseline condition (without rTMS but with EEG recording) and soon after rTMS (TMS condition with EEG recording). Experimental group (N?=?15) was stimulated over the LIFG, while the control group (N?=?13) was stimulated over the Vertex. As expected, disrupting the LIFG but not Vertex, decreased the number of M attributions provided by the participants exposed to the Rorschach stimuli, with a significant interaction effect. Unexpectedly, however, rTMS did not significantly influence EEG mu suppression.
Year Published: 2018 Author: Ando, A., Bohm, M., Giromini, L., Maryanovsky, D., Pineda, J. A., QunYang, Soghoyan, G., Zennaro, A. Category: Tags: Neuropsychology
Ando, A., Salatino, A., Giromini, L., Ricci, R., Pignolo, C., Cristofanelli, S., Ferro, L., Viglione, D. J., & Zennaro, A. (2015). Embodied simulation and ambiguous stimuli: The role of the mirror neuron system. Brain Research, 1629, 135-142.
AbstractAccording to the “embodied simulation theory,” exposure to certain visual stimuli would automatically trigger action simulation in the mind of the observer, thereby originating a “feeling of movement” modulated by the mirror neuron system(MNS). Grounded on this conceptualization, some of us recently suggested that when exposed to the Rorschach inkblots, in order to see a human movement(e.g., “a person running”) in those ambiguous stimuli, the observer would need to experience a “feeling of movement” via embodied simulation. The current study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to further test this hypothesis. Specifically, we investigated whether temporarily interfering with the activity of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG;aputativeMNSarea) usingrTMS would decrease the propensity to see human movement (M) in the Rorschach inkblots. Thirty-six participants were exposed to the Rorschach stimuli twice, i.e., during a baseline (without rTMS) and soon after inhibitory rTMS. As for the rTMS condition, half of the sample was stimulated over the LIFG (experimental group) and the other half over the Vertex (control group). In line with our hypothesis, the application of rTMS over LIFG, but not over Vertex, yielded a statistically significant reduction in the attribution of M to the ambiguous stimuli, with large effect size. These findings may be interpreted as being consistent with the hypothesis that there is a link between the MNS and the “feeling of movement” people may experience, when observing ambiguous stimuli such as the Rorschach cards.
Year Published: 2015 Author: Ando, A., Cristofanelli, S., Ferro, L., Giromini, L., Pignolo, C., Ricci, R., Salatino, A., Viglione, D. J., Zennaro, A. Category: Tags: International (non US), Neuropsychology
Arble, E., Steinert, S. W., & Daugherty, A. M. (2020). The application of the Rorschach Inkblot test in the study of neural and cognitive aging. Rorschachiana, 41(1), 1–18.
AbstractThe Rorschach Inkblot test has been adopted and adapted by many researchers to assess and predict different aspects of human experience and cognitive performance. The present review examines research that incorporates the Rorschach to evaluate neural and cognitive aging as well as decline in age-related disease. Specifically, differences in amygdala and cortical regions, as well as mirror neuron and asymmetrical hemisphere activity that correlate with specific responses to Rorschach stimuli are discussed in the context of typical changes in brain structure and function in the course of aging. In addition, the present review provides a proposed framework for expanding the use of the Rorschach to evaluate other domains of neural and cognitive function. The authors conclude that, despite a need for increased research, the Rorschach is a viable measure to evaluate certain aspects of cognitive function and decline throughout the lifespan.
Year Published: 2020 Author: Category: Literature Review/Meta-Analysis Tags: Neuropsychology
Asari, T., Konishi, S., Jimura, K., Chikazoe, J., Nakamura, N., & Miyashita, Y. (2008). Right temporopolar activation associated with unique perception. Neuroimage, 41, 145.
AbstractUnique mode of perception, or the ability to see things differently from others, is one of the psychological resources required for creative mental activities. Behavioral studies using ambiguous visual stimuli have successfully induced diverse responses from subjects, and the unique responses defined in this paradigm were observed in higher frequency in the artistic population as compared to the nonartistic population. However, the neural substrates that underlie such unique perception have yet to be investigated. In the present study, ten ambiguous figures were used as stimuli. The subjects were instructed to say what the figures looked like during functional MRI scanning. The responses were classified as "frequent", "infrequent" or "unique" responses based on the appearance frequency of the same response in an independent age- and gender-matched control group. An event-related analysis contrasting unique vs. frequent responses revealed the greatest activation in the right temporal pole, which survived a whole brain multiple comparison. An alternative parametric modulation analysis was also performed to show that potentially confounding perceptual effects deriving from differences in visual stimuli make no significant contribution to this temporopolar activation. Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have shown the involvement of the temporal pole in perception-emotion linkage. Thus, our results suggest that unique perception is produced by the integration of perceptual and emotional processes, and this integration might underlie essential parts of creative mental activities
Year Published: 2008 Author: Asari, T., Chikazoe, J., Jimura, K., Konishi, S., Miyashita, Y., Nakamura, N. Category: Tags: International (non US), Neuropsychology
Asari, T., Konishi, S., Jimura, K., Chikazoe, J., Nakamura, N., & Miyashita, Y. (2010). Amygdalar enlargement associated with unique perception. Cortex, 46, 94-99.
AbstractInterference by amygdalar activity in perceptual processes has been reported in many previous studies. Consistent with these reports, previous clinical studies have shown amygdalar volume change in multiple types of psychotic disease presenting with unusual perception. However, the relationship between variation in amygdalar volume in the normal population and the tendency toward unusual or unique perception has never been investigated. To address this issue, we defined an index to represent the tendency toward unique perception using ambiguous stimuli: subjects were instructed to state what the figures looked like to them, and ‘‘unique responses’’ were defined depending on the appearance frequency of the same responses in an age- and gender-matched control group. The index was defined as the ratio of unique responses to total responses per subject. We obtained structural brain images and values of the index from sixty-eight normal subjects. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed a positive correlation between amygdalar volume and the index. Since previous reports have indicated that unique responses were observed at higher frequency in the artistic population than in the nonartistic normal population, this positive correlation suggests that amygdalar enlargement in the normal population might be related to creative mental activity.
Year Published: 2010 Author: Asari, T., Chikazoe, J., Jimura, K., Konishi, S., Miyashita, Y., Nakamura, N. Category: Tags: Demographics, International (non US), Neuropsychology, Psychosis
Asari, T., Konishi, S., Jimura, K., Chikazoe, J., Nakamura, N., & Miyashita, Y. (2010). Amygdalar modulation of frontotemporal connectivity during the inkblot test. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 182, 103-110.
AbstractUnique and unusual responses to inkblot stimuli evoked by emotionally vulnerable psychiatric patients have been considered as examples of interference of emotion with perceptual processes. However, few studies have investigated the interaction between emotion-related and perception-related neural circuits during performance of the inkblot test. In our recent studies using the inkblot stimuli, enlargement of the amygdala was revealed in association with frequent production of unique responses to the inkblot stimuli. Additionally, our studies demonstrated right temporopolar activation associated with the production of unique responses, as well as left anterior prefrontal and bilateral occipitotemporal activation associated with the production of typical responses. On the basis of these results, we hypothesized that the amygdala is involved in modulation of the connectivity among the frontotemporal regions identified in the activation analysis. To address this issue, we performed a functional connectivity analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data, using physiophysiological interaction implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping 2 (SPM2). This analysis revealed that the amygdala imposed a positive modulation on the connection from the anterior prefrontal region to the temporopolar region, and a negative modulation on the connection from the temporopolar region to the occipitotemporal regions. These results suggest that interference of emotion affects perception during the inkblot test.
Year Published: 2010 Author: Asari, T., Chikazoe, J., Jimura, K., Konishi, S., Miyashita, Y., Nakamura, N. Category: Tags: International (non US), Neuropsychology, Psychopathology
Aschieri, F., Semeraro, R., Raciti, G., Benotto, S., Rosati, S., Ferrari, M., & Arcangeli, F. (2019). A multi-method assessment in adolescent and adult females with giant Congenital Melanocytic Naevus and their families: Body image and psychological adjustment. Journal of Clinical Case Reports, 9(4), 1-5.
AbstractBackground: Giant Congenital Melanocytic Naevus (GCMN) is a morphological skin alteration present from birth, involving up to 80% of the body surface. GCMN could have a detrimental effect on body perception due to several factors including its aspect, extension and the potential exposure to significant number of surgical interventions. Objective: This pilot study assessed quality of Body Image (BI) and psychological adjustment in subjects with GCMN and their parents. Methods: Subjects and parents underwent a multi-method assessment including a semi-structured interview, a self-administered rating scale to assess BI (Body Uneasiness Test, BUT) and two personality tests: A self-report (MMPI-2RF/A) and a performance test (Rorschach, R-PAS method). Results: Ten families were enrolled in the study. GCMN subjects were all females with high average surgical interventions (median=13). In GCMNs a substantial impairment of BI was detected by the BUT (global severity index=2.34 ± 0.81; Body Image Concern=3.25 ± 0.95), MMPI-2RF/A presented normal ranges and R-PAS showed elevations for the quality of human representations (PHR/GPHR: 119.1 ± 8.1). Mothers showed a trend for health concerns at MMPI-2RF (Malaise: 64.2 ± 9.5), fathers showed under-reporting in almost all tests. Conclusion: This set of GCMN females with relevant surgical history shows significant BI impairment with several aspects of non-integrated body identity at unconscious level, that may result in inability to envision the self and relations with others in adaptive way. Parents show different profiles, including conscious health concerns in mothers and denial in fathers. Families with a GCMN subject could benefit from integrated approaches including medical advice, psychological support and social integration projects.
Year Published: 2019 Author: Arcangeli, F. , Aschieri, F., Benotto, S., Ferrari, M., Raciti, G., Rosati, S., Semeraro, R. Category: Child/Adolescent Tags: Psychopathology
Aschieri, F., & Vetere, C. (2020). Using the Rorschach as a group intervention to promote the understanding of adolescents by staff members in inpatient residential programs. Rorschachiana, 41(2), 120–143.
AbstractMental health professionals working in adolescent residential treatment facilities face various challenges in delivering effective treatment to their patients. Establishing therapeutic alliance is often regarded as particularly daunting. Adolescents’ acting-out behaviors, emotional dysregulation, and difficulty in trusting adults can trigger strong reactions in mental health professionals. These reactions may increase the risk that mental health professionals respond to adolescents’ behaviors in similarly unmodulated ways and become involved in a reciprocal pathological process. The Rorschach test can provide vivid imagery and response content that depicts the subjective dilemmas adolescents are struggling with during their recovery in the treatment center. In this paper we show how to use Rorschach imagery to allow the mental health professionals working in adolescent inpatient treatment centers to understand their patients and increase empathy in response to adolescents’ troubling behaviors. We illustrate this procedure through the case of an adolescent patient who engaged in severely disruptive acting-out behaviors with the treating staff. Even though the staff were considering terminating his treatment in the facility as the only viable option, they instead found new empathy and a way to work with him after discussion of his Rorschach led by the inpatient center psychologist.
Year Published: 2020 Author: Category: Case Study, Child/Adolescent Tags: Psychotherapy
Atkinson, L. (1986). The comparative validities of the Rorschach and MMPI: A meta-analysis. Canadian Psychology, 27, 238-247.
AbstractA meta-analysis comparing "undirected" and "conceptual" MMPI studies, and conceptual Rorschach and MMPI studies, indicated the following conclusions, (a) Conceptual work more successfully validates an assessment instrument than does undirected investigation, (b) The validatory success of the "average" conceptual Rorschach study is comparable to that of similar MMPI work. This finding suggests that the former's questionable status may be based on sociocultural factors, rather than scientific ones, (c) The "average" conceptual Rorschach or MMPI study has only modest explanatory power, (d) Investigators' misuse of x2 has resulted in exaggerated effect size in many instances where the statistic was employed. It is suggested that future research be judged on the coherence of its inference processes, the specificity of its predictions, and the amount of variance it explains.
Year Published: 1986 Author: Atkinson, L. Category: Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Statistical, Validity Tags:
Bandura, A. (1954). The Rorschach white space response and "oppositional" behavior. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 18, 17-21.
AbstractData obtained from Rorschach tests given to 81 high school students support the following conclusions: (1)… the utilization of the experience type as a differential factor in the interpretation of S (white space) response should be discontinued until evidence for its justification becomes available." (2) The hypothesis that the S response reflects oppositional tendencies was partially corroborated. (3) There was no evidence for inferring inadequacy or self-distrust feelings from the S response.
Year Published: 1954 Author: Bandura, A. Category: Child/Adolescent, Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Validity Tags:
Bandura, A. (1954). The Rorschach white space response and perceptual reversal. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48, 113-118.
AbstractThe number and temporal sequence of the occurrence of space responses on the Rorschach and the rate of perceptual reversal on the Necker Cube were obtained. Found a significant positive relationship of moderate degree between the rate of reversal on the Necker Cube and the number of primary space responses on the Rorschach and that the frequency of occurrence of primary space responses varied according to the exposure time, with the relative number of primary space responses increasing with increasing time of exposure of the Rorschach cards.
Year Published: 1954 Author: Bandura, A. Category: Child/Adolescent, Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation Tags:
Barnett, D., Heinze, H. J., & Arble, E. (2013). Risk, resilience, and the Rorschach: A longitudinal study of children who experienced sexual abuse. Journal of Personality Assessment, 95, 600-609.
AbstractExperiencing sexual abuse increases the risk that children will report or otherwise demonstrate problems with emotion, behavior, and health. This longitudinal study of 44 children who experienced sexual abuse examined whether information processing as assessed via the Rorschach Inkblot Test was associated with child-reported depression symptoms assessed via the Children’s Depression Inventory (Kovacs, 1992) concurrently and an average of 15 months later. Children whose Rorschach protocols were relatively free of scores suggesting intense distress, complex processing, and sexual content were more likely to experience remission of depression symptoms at follow-up. Findings provide incremental validity for certain Rorschach indexes to inform prognosis regarding depression symptoms and perhaps their treatment.
Year Published: 2013 Author: Arble, E., Barnett, D., Heinze, H. J. Category: Child/Adolescent Tags: Court/Legal
Bartel G, Marko M, Rameses I, Lamm C, & Riecanský I (2020). Left Prefrontal Cortex Supports the Recognition of Meaningful Patterns in Ambiguous Stimuli. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 14(152), 1-8.
AbstractProcessing of ambiguous visual stimuli has been associated with an increased activation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) in neuroimaging studies. Nevertheless, the functional role of prefrontal activity in this process is not fully understood. In this experiment we asked participants to evaluate ambiguous inkblots from the Rorschach test, while stimulating the left lateral PFC using excitatory anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In addition, visual insight ability was assessed as a control measure requiring visual and conceptual restructuring and convergent thinking rather than divergent idea generation employed to interpret the equivocal Rorschach inkblots. Using a randomized double-blind design, we demonstrated that anodal tDCS increased the number of meaningful patterns recognized in the inkblots but had no significant effect on visual insight. These findings support the role of left lateral PFC in the processing of ambiguous visual information and object recognition. More generally, we discuss that the PFC may be involved in the mechanisms supporting the activation of stored visual and semantic representations in order to compensate for less informative bottom-up inputs and thus facilitate flexible cognition and idea generation.
Year Published: 2020 Author: Bartel, G., Lamm, C., Marko, M., Rameses, I., Riecansky, I. Category: Tags: International (non US), Neuropsychology
Benjestorf, S. T., Viglione, D. J., Lamb, J. D., & Giromini, L. (2013). Suppression of aggressive Rorschach responses among violent offenders and nonoffenders. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28, 2981-3003.
AbstractThis Rorschach study explored the suppression of aggression content when violent offenders and non offenders are asked to present themselves as not posing a threat of dangerousness in a court role-playing context. Aggressive content and complexity in this suppressive role-play context was compared to a neutral control condition. A total of 41 participants, approximately half violent offenders and half non offenders took the Rorschach under both conditions. Results indicate that both groups suppressed aggression content on the Rorschach without altering response complexity. This large effect size for testing condition may partly explain the inconsistencies across previous studies. It is possible that violent offenders have typically been tested in highly suppressive conditions whereas non offender or normative groups may have been tested in relatively low suppression conditions. If so, aggression score differences may be a reflection of the testing condition, not group differences. Both instructional sets produced similar levels of complexity, so that individuals do not simplify responses when they screen out aggressive attributions. Violent offenders did not differ from nonviolent offenders in terms of aggression content, but did produce more simplistic records. In addition, this study also undertook a semantic, textual analysis and found that individuals in the suppressive condition tended to eliminate many response elaborations, particularly those with negative of threatening connotations.
Year Published: 2013 Author: Benjestorf, S. T., Giromini, L., Lamb, J. D., Viglione, D. J. Category: Forensic Tags: Aggression/Aggressive Behavior, Court/Legal, Offender
Berry, B. A. & Meyer, G. J. (2019): Contemporary Data on the Location of Response Objects in Rorschach's Inkblots, Journal of Personality Assessment, 101, 402-413.
AbstractUsing a diverse sample of 4,786 protocols obtained with the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard, & Erdberg, 2011), we provide a contemporary overview of how people organize Rorschach’s inkblots into identifiable regions while formulating responses. After examining how frequently each location was used across all cards in this sample, we examined the consistency of their use by computing parallel information in 17 samples (N D 4,701) obtained using the Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003), including clinical, nonclinical, and adult, child, and adolescent data. Even though the CS data could only record a single location for each response, the average correlation of location use across samples was .96. The results also document continuous dimensionality in use rather than any discontinuities that would demarcate a boundary between common and uncommon locations. Implications of this notable reproducibility and dimensionality are discussed for future conceptualization of location typicality, including location coding considerations and possibilities for improved measures of perceptual fit.
Year Published: 2019 Author: Berry, B. A., Meyer, G. J. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation Tags:
Berry, B. A., & Meyer, G. J. (2020). The effects of coding the location of individual objects in a normative sample of Rorschach data. Journal of Personality Assessment, 102, 124-134.
AbstractThe locations people use when constructing responses to the Rorschach task demonstrate their style of perceiving the environment. Current systems code location use into three mutually exclusive categories: use of the whole inkblot (W), common detail areas (D), and rare detail areas (Dd). The location of objects within multiobject W responses typically are never classified and those within D areas might or might not be, which could lead to a biased understanding of the visual structure embedded in the task. To better understand this structure, we systematically coded the location of all individual response objects in 145 normative protocols, finding some notable differences relative to conventional coding guidelines. Across cards, from 8% to 71% (M = 40.2%) of W responses had multiple subcomponent objects that typically are never tallied, and multiple unnumbered location areas are used more often than many specific numbered areas. To assess generalizability, we documented correspondence with location frequencies in 4,786 protocols gathered using Rorschach Performance Assessment System guidelines. The results contribute to an improved understanding of the visual structure built into the inkblot stimuli and a method for quantifying exhaustiveness, commonness, and atypicalness as independent dimensions. We discuss implications for coding and interpreting inkblot location use.
Year Published: 2020 Author: Berry, B. A., Meyer, G. J. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Norms, Reliability, Statistical Tags:
Blasczyk-Schiep, S., Kazén, M., Kuhl, J., & Grygielski, M. (2011). Appraisal of suicidal risk among adolescents and young adults through the Rorschach Test. Journal of Personality Assessment, 93, 518-526.
AbstractThe aims of this study are to investigate suicidal behaviors among adolescents and young adults and to test an index composed using Rorschach test responses related to an increased risk of suicide. Using a cross-sectional design, 4 groups were studied (according to criteria of the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment [Posner, Oquendo, Gould, Stanley, & Davies, 2007]): A group with suicidal ideation (n = 30), a group with parasuicidal behavior (n = 30), a group with near-lethal suicide attempts (n = 26), and a control group (n = 30). Responses to the Rorschach test yielded 6 potential indicators of suicidal behavior (scored according to Exner’s Comprehensive System and the Suicidal Index for Adolescents; Silberg & Armstrong, 1992). Rorschach scores including at least 4 of these 6 indicators selected 69% of the people who had committed serious suicide attempts. The Rorschach Suicidal Index reached an acceptable reliability and was related to other criteria of suicide risk, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck, Ward, Mendelsohn, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961) and Linehan Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL–I; Linehan, Goodstein, Nielsen, & Chiles, 1983). Moreover, the Rorschach Suicidal Index showed incremental validity over the BDI and the RFL–I to predict suicidal behavior. A path analysis additionally showed that low social support was an important mediator between the Rorschach Suicidal Index and the number of suicide attempts committed by participants.
Year Published: 2011 Author: Blasczyk-Schiep, S., Grygielski, M., Kazén, M., Kuhl, J. Category: Reliability, Statistical, Validity Tags:
Bombel, G., Mihura, J. L., & Meyer, G. J. (2009). An examination of the construct validity of the Rorschach Mutuality of Autonomy (MOA) Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 227-237.
AbstractUsing 100 clinical cases, we examined the construct validity of the Mutuality of Autonomy (MOA) Scale (Urist, 1977) using Westen and Rosenthal’s (2003) rcontrast - construct validity (CV) procedure for quantifying a pattern of convergent-discriminant relationships between a target measure and a set of criterion variables. Our 15 criterion variables included the Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003) variables, a CS-based measure of ego strength (Resnick, 1994), and 3 subscales from the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (Westen, Lohr, Silk, Kerber, & Goodrich, 1990). We generated the rcontrast - CV coefficients to test 2 competing hypotheses: that the MOA Scale primarily measures object relations (OR) quality or that it primarily measures psychopathology. Results suggest that the MOA Scale is an equally potent measure of OR and psychopathology regardless of the MOA Scale index used.
Year Published: 2009 Author: Bombel, G., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Validity Tags: Psychopathology
Bornstein, R. F. (1996). Construct validity of the Rorschach Oral Dependency Scale: 1967-1995. Psychological Assessment, 8, 200–505.
AbstractA review of research examining the construct validity of J. M. Masling, L. Rabie, and S. H. Blondheim's ( 1967 ) Rorschach Oral Dependency (ROD) scale as a measure of interpersonal dependency revealed that this scale has demonstrated good interrater reliability, and that evidence regarding the convergent and discriminant validity of the ROD scale is generally strong. Mixed results have been obtained in studies assessing the internal reliability of ROD scale scores. There have been very few studies examining the predictive validity and retest reliability of the ROD scale, and few studies assessing the relationship of ROD scores to scores on other objective and projective measures of dependency. Implications of these findings for laboratory and clinical research involving the ROD scale are discussed, and suggestions for future studies in this area are offered.
Year Published: 1996 Author: Bornstein, R. F. Category: Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Reliability, Validity Tags:
Bornstein, R. F. (1999). Criterion validity of objective and projective dependency tests: A meta-analytic assessment of behavioral prediction. Psychological Assessment, 11, 48-57.
AbstractA meta-analysis of published studies in which scores on objective (i.e., self-report) or projective measures of interpersonal dependency were used to predict some aspect of dependency-related behavior revealed that validity coefficients for projective tests (number of comparisons = 32) were generally larger than validity coefficients for objective tests (number of comparisons = 54). The relationships of setting in which data were collected, source of behavioral ratings, and participant classification method on observed test score-behavior correlations were also assessed. Implications of these findings for use of objective and projective dependency measures in clinical, laboratory, and field settings are discussed.
Year Published: 1999 Author: Bornstein, R. F. Category: Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Validity Tags:
Bornstein, R. F. (2012). Rorschach score validation as a model for 21st-century personality assessment. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94, 26-38.
AbstractRecent conceptual and methodological innovations have led to new strategies for documenting the construct validity of test scores, including performance-based test scores. These strategies have the potential to generate more definitive evidence regarding the validity of scores derived from the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM) and help resolve some long-standing controversies regarding the clinical utility of the Rorschach. After discussing the unique challenges in studying the Rorschach and why research in this area is important given current trends in scientific and applied psychology, I offer 3 overarching principles to maximize the construct validity of RIM scores, arguing that (a) the method that provides RIM validation measures plays a key role in generating outcome predictions; (b) RIM variables should be linked with findings from neighboring subfields; and (c) rigorous RIM score validation includes both process-focused and outcome-focused assessments. I describe a 4-step strategy for optimal RIM score derivation (formulating hypotheses, delineating process links, generating outcome predictions, and establishing limiting conditions); and a 4-component template for RIM score validation (establishing basic psychometrics, documenting outcome-focused validity, assessing process-focused validity, and integrating outcome- and process-focused validity data). The proposed framework not only has the potential to enhance the validity and utility of the RIM, but might ultimately enable the RIM to become a model of test score validation for 21st-century personality assessment.
Year Published: 2012 Author: Bornstein, R. F. Category: Validity Tags:
Boyette, L., & Noordhof, A. (2021). A Commentary on “Developments in the Rorschach Assessment of Disordered Thinking and Communication” (Kleiger & Mihura, 2021). Rorschachiana, 42(2), 281–288.
Abstract“Why on earth would one use the Rorschach to assess disordered thinking?” was the almost Pavlovian reaction of the second author to the request to write this commentary. This uninformed response was markedly changed after reading the excellent contribution by Kleiger and Mihura (2021), as well as the research they cite. The authors convincingly argue for the reliability and validity of a set of Rorschach scales that assess thought disorder. Hence, we see no reason why one shouldn’t use these scales for this purpose. Apart from reliability and validity, the question “why use the Rorschach?” encompasses utility. This deserves attention if one wishes to convince new researchers and clinicians to start using the instrument. We will review current instruments for disordered thinking and communication and discuss the hypothet- ical (incremental) utility of the Rorschach in research and in clinical practice.
Year Published: 2021 Author: Boyette, L., Noordhof, A. Category: Critiques, Comments & Replies Tags:
Brabender, V. M. (2014). A review of 'Personality assessment in depth: A casebook'. Journal of Personality Assessment, 96, 576-577.
AbstractNo abstract available
Year Published: 2014 Author: Brabender, V. M. Category: Critiques, Comments & Replies Tags:
Burin, D., Pignolo, C., Ales, F., Giromini, L., Pyasik, M., Ghirardello, D., Zennaro, A., Angilletta, M., Castellino, L., & Pia, L. (2019). Relationships between personality features and the rubber hand illusion: An exploratory study.
AbstractThe rubber hand illusion paradigm allows investigating human body ownership by inducing an illusion of owning a life-sized fake hand. Despite the wide consensus on the fact that integration of multisensory signals is the main interpretative framework of the rubber hand illusion, increasing amount of data show that additional factors might contribute to the emergence of the illusion and, in turn, explain the strong inter-individual differences of the illusory patterns. Here, we explored whether and how personality features contribute to the emergence of the illusion by administering to healthy participants the rubber hand illusion paradigm along with two well known personality tests, i.e., the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and the Rorschach test. Results showed that two Rorschach domains (i.e., “Perception and Thinking Problems” and “Self and Other Representation”) were positively correlated with the illusory mislocalization of the own left hand toward the fake hand. Further analyses suggested that while the tendency to perceive unconventionally is related to mislocalizing the own hand toward the fake hand, the association of the RHI index and other personality features measured by the Rorschach remain uncertain. However, our findings in general suggest that personality features might have a role in the emergence of the rubber hand illusion. This, in turn, could explain the high inter-individual variability of the illusory effects.
Year Published: 2019 Author: Ales, F., Angilletta, M., Burin, D., Castellino, L., Ghirardello, D. , Giromini, L., Pia, L., Pignolo, C., Pyasik, M., Zennaro, A. Category: Tags: International (non US), Neuropsychology
Campos, R. C., Mesquita, I., Besser, A., & Blatt, S. J. (2014). Neediness and depression in women. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 78, 16-33.
AbstractIn a 6-month longitudinal design, the authors examined the links between neediness and increases in depressive symptoms in women. Neediness was assessed with the self-report Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), supplemented by a projective measure that assessed an important component of dependency, oral dependency, on the Rorschach. Results indicate that neediness correlated significantly with increases in depressive symptoms over the 6 months. Orality interacted with neediness to substantially increase the prediction of increases in depressive symptoms. (Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic,78[1], 16–33)
Year Published: 2014 Author: Besser, A., Blatt, S. J., Campos, R. C., Mesquita, I. Category: Tags: International (non US), Psychopathology
Charek, D. B., Meyer, G. J., & Mihura, J. L. (2016). The impact of an ego depletion manipulation on performance-based and self-report assessment measures. Assessment, 23, 637–649.
AbstractWe investigated the impact of ego depletion on selected Rorschach cognitive processing variables and self-reported affect states. Research indicates acts of effortful self-regulation transiently deplete a finite pool of cognitive resources, impairing performance on subsequent tasks requiring self-regulation. We predicted that relative to controls, ego-depleted participants’ Rorschach protocols would have more spontaneous reactivity to color, less cognitive sophistication, and more frequent logical lapses in visualization, whereas self-reports would reflect greater fatigue and less attentiveness. The hypotheses were partially supported; despite a surprising absence of self-reported differences, ego-depleted participants had Rorschach protocols with lower scores on two variables indicative of sophisticated combinatory thinking, as well as higher levels of color receptivity; they also had lower scores on a composite variable computed across all hypothesized markers of complexity. In addition, self-reported achievement striving moderated the effect of the experimental manipulation on color receptivity, and in the Depletion condition it was associated with greater attentiveness to the tasks, more color reactivity, and less global synthetic processing. Results are discussed with an emphasis on the response process, methodological limitations and strengths, implications for calculating refined Rorschach scores, and the value of using multiple methods in research and experimental paradigms to validate assessment measures.
Year Published: 2016 Author: Charek, D. B., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation Tags:
Charek, D. B., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L., & O’Gorman, E. T. (2018). Correspondence of maximum and typical performance measures of cognitive processing. Assessment, 27(4), 803-809.
AbstractWe examined associations among cognitive processing measures that varied on a continuum from maximum to typical performance tasks in the context of an ego depletion study. Our intent was to replicate and extend the findings of Charek, Meyer, and Mihura, which showed that ego depletion had an expected effect on selected scores from the Rorschach inkblot task. We hypothesized that Rorschach variables indicative of cognitive sophistication would correlate with neuropsychological measures of cognitive ability and that Rorschach variables theoretically unassociated with cognitive processing would not correlate with those criterion measures. These hypotheses were supported, providing evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. We also hypothesized ego depletion effects on all measures; however, none were evident. Methodological considerations and implications of the findings are discussed.
Year Published: 2020 Author: Charek, D. B., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L., O’Gorman, E. T. Category: Reliability, Validity Tags:
Cradock O'Leary, J., Kelley, D., & Parrish, C. (2020). From swallowing to savoring emotions: A therapeutic assessment case study using the Thurston Cradock Test of Shame as an assessment intervention. Rorschachiana, 41(2), 181–199.
AbstractThis article presents a Therapeutic Assessment case study of a 48-year-old Catholic nun who was evaluated for concerns related to recurrent depression, difficulty relating to others, trouble following through on tasks, and lack of self-care. Maria was given the Rorschach, MMPI-2-RF, Wartegg Drawing Completion Test, and Thurston Cradock Test of Shame (TCTS). Testing results suggested depression, problems regulating emotion, incongruence between external presentation and internal state, and impaired functional intelligence when negative emotions are triggered. Maria’s TCTS protocol indicated a tendency to deflate in the presence of shame or criticism. She used tentative language around emotion, did not access support, and struggled to resolve emotionally charged situations. The TCTS results appeared to access and explain Maria’s core difficulties. TCTS Cards 6 and 8 were selected for an assessment intervention session (AIS) designed to help Maria understand what she does with negative feelings. Maria was asked to tell a story focusing on the main character. Through half-steps and affective scaffolding, Maria identified how she “swallows” her negative feelings and “isolates” when emotions are strong. The authors discuss how the AIS helped Maria access her split-off affect, and understand its relation to her symptoms, poor self-care, impaired follow-through, and relational difficulties.
Year Published: 2020 Author: Category: Case Study, Clinical Practice Tags: Psychotherapy
Cristofanelli, S., Pignolo, C., Ferro, L., Ando’, A., & Zennaro, A. (2016). Rorschach nomological network and resting-state large scale brain networks: Introducing a new research design. Rorschachiana, 37, 74–92.
AbstractDespite advances in neuroscience, the field of personality assessment has not yet taken full advantage of the progress in neuroimaging techniques. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is one of the most widely used neuroimaging techniques and allows the detection of brain processes and their anatomically detailed correspondences. In the last fifteen years, few studies have developed research designs using the Rorschach test in fMRI settings, analyzing the relationship between Rorschach variables and brain neural circuits. Although their findings were promising, some methodological issues related to fMRI research design have been outlined. Recently, personality neuroscience is emerging as a new field of research that attempts to deepen and refine neurobiological and psychological theories of personality using fMRI in resting state conditions. Recent studies report that resting state networks show a direct relationship with psychological traits. The aim of the present article is to propose a new research design that employs resting-state functional connectivity analyses to explore the brain’s functional architecture in relation to psychological constructs of Rorschach variables related to perceptual styles and personality traits.
Year Published: 2016 Author: Ando, A., Cristofanelli, S., Ferro, L., Pignolo, C., Zennaro, A. Category: Tags:
Cronbach, L. J. (1949). Statistical methods applied to Rorschach scores: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 46, 393-429.
Year Published: 1949 Author: Cronbach, L. J. Category: Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Reliability, Statistical, Validity Tags:
Dao, T. K., Prevatt, F., & Horne, H. L. (2008). Differentiating psychotic patients from nonpsychotic patients with the MMPI-2 and Rorschach. Journal of Personality Assessment, 90, 93-101.
AbstractThe goal of this study was to examine the incremental validity and the clinical utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2 (MMPI–2; (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) and Rorschach (Rorschach, 1942) with regard to differential diagnosis in a sample of adult inpatients with a primary psychotic disorder or a primary mood disorder without psychotic features. Diagnostic efficiency statistics have suggested that the Rorschach Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI; Exner, 2000a, 2000b) was better than MMPI–2 scales in discriminating psychotic patients from nonpsychotic patients. We compared the 84% overall correct classification rate (OCC) for the PTI to an OCC of 70% for the MMPI–2 scales. Adding the MMPI–2 scales to the PTI resulted in a decrease in OCC of 1%, whereas adding the PTI to the MMPI–2 resulted in an increase in OCC of 14%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power, negative predictive power, and kappa were equal or higher with only the PTI in the model.
Year Published: 2008 Author: Dao, T. K., Horne, H. L., Prevatt, F. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Statistical, Validity Tags: Psychosis
Dawes, R. M. (1999). Two methods for studying the incremental validity of a Rorschach variable. Psychological Assessment, 11, 297-302.
AbstractThe MMPI can be scored by a clerk. Also, both the number and form level of Rorschach responses can be easily assessed. Other Rorschach variables should be examined for their incremental validity beyond number of responses and form level, or from these variables plus simple MMPI variables. This study applied multiple regression analyses to 2 data sets with reasonable criteria of pathology that were predicted by W. Perry and D. J. Viglione's (1991) Ego Impairment Index considered alone. The index had only slight incremental validity over and above the number of responses and form quality, and even less when the average MMPI elevation and L. R. Goldberg's (1965) formula for predicting psychosis versus neurosis were entered before these Rorschach variables. Another way of assessing incremental validity is through the use of unit weights, that is, adding standardized variables weighted equally rather than optimally. The unit-weighted incremental validity analysis resulted in the same conclusions.
Year Published: 1999 Author: Dawes, R. M. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Validity Tags: Psychopathology
De Koninck, J. M., & Crabbé-Declève, G. (1971). Field dependence and Rorschach white-space figure-ground reversal responses. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 33, 1191-1194.
AbstractIt was hypothesized that field-independent Ss would produce more white space figure-ground reversal responses (S) on the Rorschach test than field-dependent Ss. From 27 females and 25 males given the rod-and-frame test the 7 most field-independent and the 7 most field-dependent took the Rorschach test. The 7 field-independent Ss produced more white space reversals. A control on the number of reversal responses as a function of time of exposure and a control on sex differences showed no contaminating effect. Thus, both measures may refer to the same dimension.
Year Published: 1971 Author: Crabbe-Decleve, G., De Koninck, J. M. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Statistical Tags:
Dean, K. L., Viglione, D. J., Perry, W., & Meyer, G. J. (2007). A method to optimize the response range while maintaining Rorschach Comprehensive System validity. Journal of Personality Assessment, 89, 149-161.
AbstractBrief and lengthy Rorschach records have been identified as common problems in protocol administration. Clinicians have debated how to prevent overly short and long records, but they have been reluctant to alter standardized administration for fear of introducing bias. The present study examines a nonintrusive method for constraining responses by prompting for an extra response when only one is offered per card and by removing the card after four responses are given. Among patients who typically produce brief records, consisting of a residential sample of civil and forensic patients with a range of disordered thinking, the alternative administration method demonstrated improved Comprehensive System validity in assessing thought disorder and eliminated the need to re-administer the test due to fewer than 14 responses. The findings have clinical implications for protocol administration with thought-disordered populations that typically produce brief records.
Year Published: 2007 Author: Dean, K. L., Meyer, G. J., Perry, W., Viglione, D. J. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Forensic, Validity Tags: Psychosis
Dean, K. L., Viglione, D. J., Perry, W., & Meyer, G. J. (2008). Correction to: "A method to optimize the response range while maintaining Rorschach Comprehensive System validity." Journal of Personality Assessment, 90, 204.
AbstractThere was an error reporting descriptive statistics and group comparisons for the Complexity variable in Table 2. All analyses in the study were conducted with the Complexity raw score as intended. However, the values reported in Table 2 were for a per response complexity score (i.e., the Complexity/R ratio). The correct values are given for the Complexity raw scores that should have been reported in Table 2.
Year Published: 2008 Author: Dean, K. L., Meyer, G. J., Perry, W., Viglione, D. J. Category: Critiques, Comments & Replies Tags:
Diener, M. J. (2013). Focus on Clinical Practice - Review of 'An Introduction to the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS)'. Independent Practitioner, Winter, 12-14.
AbstractNo abstract available
Year Published: 2013 Author: Diener, M. J. Category: Critiques, Comments & Replies, Norms, Reliability Tags:
Diener, M. J., Hilsenroth, M. J., Shaffer, S. A., & Sexton, J. E. (2011). A meta-analysis of the relationship between the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index (EII) and psychiatric severity. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 18, 464-485.
AbstractThe present study examined the relationship between the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index (EII) and psychiatric severity. Search procedures yielded 13 independent samples (total N = 1402, average n = 108, standard deviation = 90) for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Inter-rater reliability analyses demonstrated that coding of effect sizes and moderator variables was completed with good to excellent reliability. Results indicated that higher EII scores were associated with greater psychiatric severity, with an overall weighted effect size of r = 0.29, p = 0.000002 (95% confidence interval = 0.17–0.40), supporting the EII’s validity as a measure of psychological impairment. Publication bias analyses did not indicate any significant cause for concern regarding the results. The data were demonstrably heterogeneous (Q = 56.82, p = 0.0000001), and results of post-hoc tests indicated that effect sizes with dependent variables obtained via researcher ratings were significantly larger than any of the following: effect sizes with dependent variables obtained via clinician ratings, informant ratings, information about level of treatment or placement status or self-report ratings (p’s = 0.0005, 0.003, <0.001, <0.001, respectively). In addition, there was a trend for effect sizes based on performance-based measures to be larger than those based on information about level of treatment or placement status (p = 0.098) as well as those based on self-report measures (p = 0.076). Other moderator analyses were non-significant (p’s > 0.10).
Year Published: 2011 Author: Diener, M. J., Hilsenroth, M. J., Sexton, J. E., Shaffer, S. A. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Reliability, Validity Tags: Psychopathology
Dzamonja-Ignjatovic, T., Smith, B. L., Jocic, D. D., & Milanovic, M. (2013). A comparison of new and revised Rorschach measures of schizophrenic functioning in a Serbian clinical sample. Journal of Personality Assessment, 95, 471-478.
AbstractWe empirically evaluated indexes derived from the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) and the Rorschach Performance Assessment System(R–PAS) that are used for the assessment of psychotic functioning in schizophrenia. We compared the Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) and the Ego Impairment Index (EII–2) with their revised versions: Thought and Perception Composite (TP–Comp) and EII–3.We evaluated their predictive validity for differentiating schizophrenic from non schizophrenic patients in a Serbian sample. The sample consisted of 211 (109 men and 102women, 18–50 years old) inpatients in Serbia who were divided into 2 groups: schizophrenic (100) and non schizophrenic (111). Test administration, coding, and form quality classification followed CS guidelines. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the new indexes TP–Comp and EII–3have slightly better predictive power than their counterparts, PTI and EII–2, in identification of schizophrenia, and that TP–Comp performed better than other indexes, although all 4 indexes were successful in differentiating these groups. The results supported the use of TP–Comp in diagnosis of schizophrenia and generally provided evidence for the utility of the Rorschach in evaluating psychosis and for its use in a cross-national context.
Year Published: 2013 Author: Dzamonja-Ignjatovic, T., Jocic, D. D., Milanovic, M., Smith, B. L. Category: Tags: International (non US), Psychosis
Eblin, J. J., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L., Viglione, D. J., & O'Gorman, E. T. (2018). Development and preliminary validation of a brief behavioral measure of psychotic propensity. Psychiatry Research. Advance online publication.
AbstractExtensive research demonstrates that the dimensional assessment of psychotic manifestations is a primary strength of the Rorschach inkblot task, which provides an in vivo sample of problem-solving behavior and normative standards concerning the logic and coherence of thought processes and the typicality of perceptual representations. This article presents foundational research for the Thought and Perception Assessment System (TPAS), a Rorschach-based system designed to assess solely for disordered thinking and perceptual aberrations using either the standard 10-card set of inkblots or alternative 3-, 4-, and 5-card short forms. Using data from three patient samples (ns = 61, 93, and 133) and one nonpatient sample (n = 118), we document the equivalence of mean scores across the full and short-form card sets. We also document satisfactory interrater reliability and validity for the full and short forms, as well as strong part-whole reliability coefficients between the short forms and the full form. Consistent with psychometric theory and the principle of aggregation, each type of coefficient decreased as a function of decreasing the number of cards. We discuss implications and future applications in research and clinical assessment.
Year Published: 2018 Author: Eblin, J. J., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L., O’Gorman, E. T. , Viglione, D. J. Category: Tags: Psychosis
Ellenberger, H. (1954). The life and work of Hermann Rorschach (1884–1922). Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 18, 173-219.
Year Published: 1954 Author: Ellenberger, H. Category: Tags:
Erard, R. E. (2012). Expert testimony using the Rorschach Performance Assessment System in psychological injury cases. Psychological Injury and Law, 5, 122-134.
AbstractThe Rorschach Performance Assessment System(R-PAS; Meyer et al. 2011) is a new system for administering, scoring, and interpreting the Rorschach Inkblot Test that is designed to make the best possible use of currently available scientific and clinical evidence. Many features of R-PAS are well-suited to forensic evaluation generally and to psychological evaluations in psychological injury cases in particular. Among them, R-PAS: (a) offers an alternative to self-report methods that adds incremental validity, (b) provides a useful check against exaggerated or minimized symptom presentation, (d) generates evidence concerning implicit traits and behavioral tendencies, (e) offers techniques for adjusting for abnormal response sets, (f) uses internationally applicable reference data that do not exaggerate or minimize pathology, (g) organizes results according to the strength of the evidence, and (h) presents results on which are interpretations are based in a manner easy for the intelligent layperson to grasp. Despite its recent for malintroduction to the professional assessment community, RPAS takes advantage of decades of research in peer reviewed publications (including the insights of Rorschach critics) and builds on established validity and general acceptance for most of its procedures and features. The article describes the standards and criteria applying to expert psychological testimony in U.S. federal and state courts and applies them to Rorschach-based testimony in general and R-PAS-based testimony specifically. It is argued that when the system is properly used and applied and when such testimony is appropriately formulated, it should be found admissible in both state and federal courtrooms.
Year Published: 2012 Author: Erard, R. E. Category: Critiques, Comments & Replies, Forensic, Validity Tags: Court/Legal
Erard, R. E. (2014, Aug 8). Ask the experts: 10 reasons to reconsider NOT using the Rorschach in your child custody evaluations. Association of Family and Conciliation Courts eNEWS, 9.
AbstractNo abstract available
Year Published: 2014 Author: Erard, R. E. Category: Child/Adolescent, Critiques, Comments & Replies Tags: Child Custody, Court/Legal
Erard, R. E., Meyer, G. J., & Viglione, D. J. (2014). Setting the record straight: Comment on Gurley, Piechowski, Sheehan, and Gray (2014) on the admissibility of the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) in court. Psychological Injury and Law, 7, 165-177.
AbstractAlthough the Rorschach is widely used in child custody evaluations, its contributions are often underestimated. As an evidence supported, performance-based method, it adds incremental validity to self-report findings. It yields insights about perceptual and coping styles, reality testing and logical thinking, emotional regulation and sensitivity, and relational schemas. Some evaluators hesitate to use the Rorschach due to concerns about reliability and validity, admissibility, and courtroom presentation. R-PAS, a relatively new Rorschach system, shows particular promise in addressing such concerns. It selects and organizes variables according to their degree of empirical support and clinical meaningfulness, uses internationally relevant, non pathologizing reference data, uses contemporary psychometric statistical methods, and presents results in a format that is easy for a court to understand.
Year Published: 2014 Author: Erard, R. E., Meyer, G. J., Viglione, D. J. Category: Critiques, Comments & Replies, Forensic, Reliability, Validity Tags: Court/Legal
Erard, R. E., & Viglione, D. J. (2014). The Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) in child custody evaluations. Journal of Child Custody, 11, 159-180.
AbstractGurley et al. (Psychological Injury and Law 7:9–17,2014) express reservations about the admissibility of testimony based on the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (RPAS)in court. They question whether there is sufficient evidentiary foundation in the underlying psychometrics and adequate general acceptance among psychologists for R-PAS-based testimony to meet either the Daubert or Frye criteria for admissibility and also raise doubts about how well it meets the criteria for the use of forensic tests proposed by Heilbrun (Law and Human Behavior 16:257–272, 1992). This invited comment addresses their concerns about the admissibility of R-PAS-based testimony and corrects some erroneous statements about the psychometrics of R-PAS and the pertinent empirical literature. Gurley et al. characterize R-PAS as being in competition with the established Comprehensive System (CS; Exner 2003), though we clarify that it is actually an evolutionary development from the CS and designed to be a replacement for it. We also point out how their conclusion that R-PAS-based forensic testimony may be hazardous or premature is based on an insufficient familiarity with the R-PAS scientific and professional literature, a misinterpretation of the Frye and Daubert evidentiary standards, and a mischaracterization of several of Heilbrun’s (Law and Human Behavior16:257–272, 1992) criteria for the use of tests in forensic testimony.
Year Published: 2014 Author: Erard, R. E., Viglione, D. J. Category: Child/Adolescent, Forensic Tags: Child Custody, Court/Legal
Exner, J. E. (1996). Critical bits and the Rorschach response process. Journal of Personality Assessment, 67, 464-477.
AbstractThis article reviews some of the basic elements of visual science, especially the concept of critical stimulus bits, as they apply to the Rorschach response process. Illustrations and data are presented to depict how stimulus features such as contour, position, color, and internal sets can be critical in encouraging or thwarting the selection of certain kinds of Rorschach answers. The findings are discussed in the context of detecting projected material in Rorschach answers.
Year Published: 1996 Author: Exner Jr., J. E. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation Tags:
Finn, S. E. (2012). Implications of recent research in neurobiology for psychological assessment. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94, 440-449.
AbstractIn this article, I highlight 3 major findings from current research in attachment, neurobiology, psychopathology, and psychotherapy: (a) attachment failures and early trauma are related to many forms of psychopathology, (b) one of the major sequelae of developmental trauma is disorganization of the right hemisphere, and (c) psychological interventions that promote emotional experience, awareness, and expression are more effective than those that rely solely on cognitive restructuring. I then suggest implications of these findings for the practice of psychological assessment: (a) the relationship between client and assessor is more important than has been acknowledged generally, (b) performance-based personality tests are very useful in part because they tap right-hemisphere and subcortical brain functioning and provide information that clients cannot directly report, and (c) when psychological assessments provide clients with powerful emotional experiences, therapeutic change is often the result. I illustrate these points with excerpts from the Therapeutic Assessment of a 27-year-old man with compulsive sexual behavior.
Year Published: 2012 Author: Finn, S. E. Category: Trauma Tags: Psychopathology
Fondren, A. H., & Jenkins, S. R. (2020). Horseshoe crabs and stingrays: A case study of interpersonal theory and multimethod collaborative/therapeutic assessment. Rorschachiana, 41(2), 162–180.
AbstractCollaborative/Therapeutic Assessment (CTA; Finn, 2007) offers a person-centered approach to understanding clients’ problems through mutual engagement with the client’s experience of the data-gathering process. Key tenets of CTA include empowering the client to shape their own assessment questions and goals and connecting with the client in an empathic and meaningful manner. These tenets map onto the core domains of interpersonal theory – that is, agency and communion (Wiggins, 1996). Interpersonal theory can be utilized to conceptualize several different concerns that may arise through the client’s questions during CTA, such as their interpersonal traits, problems, sensitivities, and so on. The present article provides a case conceptualization that utilizes contemporary integrative interpersonal theory (CIIT; Pincus, 2005) to conceptualize an assessment client who presented with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and gastrointestinal problems. Through a multimethod assessment approach grounded in the CTA and CIIT frameworks, the assessor gained a deeper understanding of how the client’s presenting problems are tied to her interpersonal patterns. Finally, the present article explores how interpersonal processes that unfolded during the assessment sessions informed case conceptualization and treatment planning. The synthesis of CTA and CIIT offers promising avenues for new methods of understanding clients’ questions through the lens of interpersonal relationships.
Year Published: 2020 Author: Category: Case Study Tags:
Gacono, C. B., Bannatyne-Gacono, L., Meloy, J. R., & Baity, M. R. (2005). The Rorschach extended aggression scores. Rorschachiana, 27, 164-190.
AbstractThe Extended Aggression Scores were developed to quantify the aggressive Rorschach imagery produced by violent Antisocial Personality Disordered (ASPD; American Psychiatric Association, 1980) offenders. In this article we present information concerning the reliability, psychometric properties, and construct validity of the scores and discuss their clinical meanings. We conclude that while AgPotential, AgVulnerability and Sadomasochism need additional research, the current research supports inclusion of the more frequently appearing AgContent and AgPast scores in the Comprehensive System.
Year Published: 2005 Author: Baity, M. R., Bannatyne-Gacono, L., Gacono, C. B., Meloy, J. R. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Forensic, Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Reliability, Statistical, Validity Tags: Aggression/Aggressive Behavior, Offender, Psychopathology
Ganellen, R. J. (1994). Attempting to conceal psychological disturbance: MMPI defensive response sets and the Rorschach. Journal of Personality Assessment, 63, 423-437.
AbstractThis study examined whether a defensive response set during a psychological evaluation would skew responses on the Rorschach such that subjects could conceal psychological difficulties. Subjects in this study were commercial airline pilots who were required to undergo an independent psychological evaluation after completing a treatment program for alcohol or substance abuse. Subjects knew the results of the psychological evaluation would be taken into account by the Federal Aviation Administration and their employer when deciding whether to reinstate their pilots license and allowing them to return to work. Thus, subjects potentially had considerable incentive to attempt to create a favorable impression. As expected, subjects responded in a defensive manner, as assessed by standard Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) validity scales. It was expected that a guarded, defensive response set would be manifested on the Rorschach by fewer than average responses, a constricted response style, and an attempt to appear conventional. It was also expected that no or few signs of difficulty would be produced on the Rorschach if subjects were successful in their efforts to create a favorable impression. In spite of defensive efforts to create a favorable impression, these subjects produced valid Rorschach protocols that suggested they experienced emotional distress, self-critical ideation, and difficulties in their interpersonal relationships, problems not reported on the MMPI, Implications of these findings for clinical practice.
Year Published: 1994 Author: Ganellen, R. J. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Forensic, Reliability, Statistical, Validity Tags: Court/Legal, Psychopathology
Garb, H. N. (1999). Call for a moratorium on the use of the Rorschach Inkblot Test in clinical and forensic settings. Assessment, 6, 313-317.
AbstractA call is issued for a moratorium on the use of the Rorschach Inkblot Test in clinical and forensic (but not research) settings. The moratorium should last until we have determined which Rorschach scores are valid and which ones are invalid. Unfortunately, for most Rorschach scores, results from meta-analyses have been uninformative. Also, incremental validity has not been studied for most Rorschach scores. Furthermore, positive findings for Rorschach scores have rarely been independently replicated. Finally, selective reporting of results has been a problem: Some investigators report significant results but not nonsignificant results. The magnitude of this problem has not been determined. Unless a moratorium is adopted, clinicians will continue to interpret invalid scores along with valid scores.
Year Published: 1999 Author: Garb, H. N. Category: Critiques, Comments & Replies, Validity Tags:
Garb, H. N., Wood, J. M., Nezworski, M. T., Grove, W. M., & Stejskal, W. J. (2001). Toward a resolution of the Rorschach controversy. Psychological Assessment, 13, 433-448.
AbstractComments are made about the articles comprising the first round of the Special Series on the Rorschach. G. Strieker and J. R. Gold (1999) and D. J. Viglione (1999) praised the Rorschach, but they consistently failed to cite negative findings. R. M. Dawes (1999) obtained results that provide modest support for the Rorschach, but one of his data sets is flawed. J. B. Miller, R. Rosenthal, R. F. Bornstein, D. T. R. Berry, and S. Brunell-Neuleib (1999) reported the results of a meta-analysis, but, among other problems, their coders were not blind to the results of all the studies. J. Hunsley and J. M. Bailey (1999) made a strong case for concluding that there is no scientific basis for using the Rorschach. Recommendations are made for resolving the Rorschach controversy.
Year Published: 2001 Author: Garb, H. N., Grove, W. M., Nezworski, M. T., Stejskal, W. J., Wood, J. M. Category: Critiques, Comments & Replies Tags:
Gibby, R. G., & Stotsky, B. A. (1953). The relation of Rorschach free association to inquiry. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 17, 359-364.
Year Published: 1953 Author: Gibby, R. G., Stotsky, B. A. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Reliability, Validity Tags:
Giromini, L., Ando, A., Morese, R., Salatino, A., Di Girolamo, M., Viglione, D. J., & Zennaro, A. (2016). Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) and vulnerability to stress: A preliminary study on electrodermal activity during stress. Psychiatry Research, 246, 166-172.
AbstractThis study investigated the predictive validity of the ten Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) variables from the Stress and Distress domain, by testing whether they predicted increased sympathetic reactivity to a mild, laboratory-induced stress, occurred one week after Rorschach administration. A relatively small student sample (N = 52) contributed to this research: During a first meeting (T1) participants were administered the Rorschach task according to R-PAS guidelines; about one week later (T2) their electrodermal activity (EDA) was recorded during exposure to a mild laboratory stress-inducing task. Based on literature indicating that exposure to stress tends to increase physiological vulnerability/reactivity to stressful situations, we anticipated that Stress and Distress R-PAS variables measured at T1 would positively correlate with increased sympathetic reactivity to stress at T2, as indicated by greater EDA changes from baseline to stress and recovery. Results partially confirmed our hypotheses: The (a) the mean of and (b) the majority of the Stress and Distress R-PAS variables were significantly correlated, in the expected direction, with medium and medium to large effect sizes.
Year Published: 2016 Author: Ando, A., Di Girolamo, M., Giromini, L., Morese, R. , Salatino, A., Viglione, D. J., Zennaro, A. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Reliability, Validity Tags: International (non US)
Giromini, L., Porcelli, P., Viglione, D. J., Parolin, L., & Pineda, J. A. (2010). The feeling of movement: EEG evidence for mirroring activity during the observations of static, ambiguous stimuli in the Rorschach cards. Biological Psychology, 85, 233-241.
AbstractThe mirror neuron system (MNS) is considered the best explanation for the neural basis of embodied simulation. To date no study has investigated if it may be activated not only by actual but by the “feeling of movement”. The Rorschach test cards were used to investigate evidence of EEGmu wave suppression at central areas, an index of MNSactivity, since human movement responses (M) to the Rorschach elicit such feelings of movement. Nineteen healthy volunteers observed different sets of Rorschach stimuli during attribution, identification, and observation of human movements and different scenarios while their EEG were recorded. Significant mu suppression occurred when subjects perceived movement, regardless of the experimental condition. These results show that mirroring can be activated by static, ambiguous stimuli such as Rorschach cards, suggesting that internal representation of the “feeling of movement” may be sufficient to trigger MNS activity even when minimal external cues are present.
Year Published: 2010 Author: Giromini, L., Parolin, L., Pineda, J. A., Porcelli, P., Viglione, D. J. Category: Tags: Neuropsychology
Giromini, L., Viglione, D. J., Brusadelli, E., Lang, M., Reese, J. B., & Zennaro, A. (2015). Cross-cultural validation of the Rorschach Developmental Index. Journal of Personality Assessment, 97, 348-353.
AbstractThe Developmental Index (DI) has recently been introduced as a composite Rorschach measure of psychological development and maturation, which can be used both with the Comprehensive System (Exner, 2003), and with the recently developed Rorschach Performance Assessment System (Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard, & Erdberg, 2011). As the DI is new, and its validity has not yet been investigated with independent non-U.S. samples, we tested the correlation between DI and age using 3 relatively large samples, 2 of which were from outside the United States (total N D 902). Other Rorschach variables presumably associated with maturation, such as complexity and productivity, were also investigated. As expected, the DI significantly correlated with age, with small variations across the 3 samples. Importantly, the correlation between DI and age remained statistically significant also after controlling for productivity (i.e., the number of responses) and complexity.
Year Published: 2015 Author: Brusadelli, E., Giromini, L., Lang, M., Reese, J. B., Viglione, D. J., Zennaro, A. Category: Child/Adolescent, Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Validity Tags: Demographics, International (non US)
Giromini, L., Viglione, D. J., Brusadelli, E., Zennaro, A., Di Girolamo, M., & Porcelli, P. (2016). The effects of neurological priming on the Rorschach: A pilot experiment on the human movement response. Rorschachiana, 37, 58-73.
AbstractThis article introduces a new scientific paradigm that might allow the investigation of the neurological correlates of the Rorschach test without using expensive and time consuming tools such as the fMRI or the EEG. Based on the literature on the Mozart effect, we anticipated that preactivation of a given brain network before exposure to the Rorschach cards would associate with the increased production of responses (or determinants) presumed to be associated with that same network. To pilot test this hypothesis, we focused on the postulated link between human movement (M) responses and mirror neuron system (MNS) activity, and investigated whether preactivation of the MNS would associate with the increased production of M responses. Specifically, 30 students were administered a subset of Rorschach cards immediately after watching three short videos aimed at activating the MNS at three different levels (no/low/high activation). Although no statistically significant differences among the three conditions were found, a linear trend in the expected direction (p = .107), with medium effect size (?² = .087) was observed. In addition to providing information on the M response, this article introduces a new scientific paradigm to investigate the neurological correlates of the Rorschach.
Year Published: 2016 Author: Brusadelli, E., Di Girolamo, M., Giromini, L., Porcelli, P., Viglione, D. J., Zennaro, A. Category: Tags: International (non US), Neuropsychology
Giromini, L., Viglione, D. J., & McCullaugh, J. (2015). Introducing a Bayesian approach to determining degree of fit with existing Rorschach norms. Journal of Personality Assessment, 97, 354-363.
AbstractThis article offers a new methodological approach to investigate the degree of fit between an independent sample and 2 existing sets of norms. Specifically, with a new adaptation of a Bayesian method, we developed a user-friendly procedure to compare the mean values of a given sample to those of 2 different sets of Rorschach norms. To illustrate our technique, we used a small, U.S. community sample of 80 adults and tested whether it resembled more closely the standard Comprehensive System norms (CS 600; Exner, 2003), or a recently introduced, internationally based set of Rorschach norms (Meyer, Erdberg, & Shaffer, 2007). Strengths and limitations of this new statistical technique are discussed.
Year Published: 2015 Author: Giromini, L., McCullaugh, J., Viglione, D. J. Category: Norms, Statistical Tags:
Giromini, L., Viglione, D. J., Pineda, J. A., Porcelli, P., Hubbard, D., Zennaro, A., & Cauda, F. (2019). Human movement responses to the Rorschach and mirroring activity: An fMRI study. Assessment, 26, 56–69.
AbstractIt has been suggested that the Rorschach human movement (M) response could be associated with an embodied simulation mechanism mediated by the mirror neuron system (MNS). To date, evidence for this hypothesis comes from two electroencephalogram studies and one repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study. To provide additional data on this topic, the Rorschach was administered during fMRI to a sample of 26 healthy adult volunteers. Activity in MNSrelated brain areas temporally associated with M responses was compared with such activity for other, non-M Rorschach responses. Data analyses focused on MNS regions of interest identified by Neurosynth, a web-based platform for large scale, automated meta-analysis of fMRI data. Consistent with the hypothesis that M responses involve embodied simulation and MNS activity, univariate region of interest analyses showed that production of M responses associated with significantly greater activity in MNS-related brain areas when compared with non-M Rorschach responses. This finding is consistent with the traditional interpretation of the M code.
Year Published: 2019 Author: Cauda, F., Giromini, L., Hubbard, D., Pineda, J. A., Porcelli, P., Viglione, D. J., Zennaro, A. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Statistical Tags: Neuropsychology
Giromini, L., Viglione, D. J., Vitolo, E., Cauda, F. & Zennaro, A. (2019). Introducing the concept of neurobiological foundation of Rorschach responses using the example of Oral Dependent Language. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology.
AbstractWe introduce the concept of “neurobiological foundation” of Rorschach interpretations as an extension of the concept of behavioral representation as a foundation for interpretation of R-PAS variables. Here, we propose that if there is a parallelism between the mental, verbal and perceptual behaviors occurring within the microcosm of the Rorschach task and those occurring in the external environment [behavioral foundation], then the same brain regions engaged by the test-taker when producing of a given code, should be engaged also when reproducing, in the external environment, the same psychological processes underlying that specific Rorschach code [neurobiological foundation]. To investigate this concept, we used archival, fMRI data and tested whether producing Oral Dependency Language (ODL) responses would associate with increased activation in brain regions associated with dependency related, psychological processes. Results from a sample of 21 non-clinical volunteers partially confirmed our hypothesis, providing some support to the neurobiological foundation of the ODL code.
Year Published: 2019 Author: Cauda, F., Giromini, L., Viglione, D. J., Vitolo, E., Zennaro, A. Category: Tags: Neuropsychology
Giromini, L., Viglione, D. J., Zennaro, A., & Cauda F. (2017). Neural activity during production of Rorschach responses: An fMRI study. Psychiatric Research: Neuroimaging, 262, 25-31.
AbstractRecently, a lot of effort has been made to ground Rorschach interpretations to their evidence base. To date, however, no studies have yet described, via fMRI, what brain areas get involved when one takes the Rorschach. To fill this gap in the literature, we administered the ten-inkblot stimuli to 26 healthy volunteers during fMRI. Analysis of BOLD signals revealed that, compared to fixating a cross, looking at the Rorschach inkblots while thinking of what they might be associated with higher temporo-occipital and fronto-parietal activations, and with greater activity in some small, sub-cortical regions included in the limbic system. These findings are in line with the traditional conceptualization of the test, as they suggest that taking the Rorschach involves (a) high-level visual processing, (b) top-down as well as bottom-up attentional processes, and (c) perception and processing of emotions and emotional memories.
Year Published: 2017 Author: Cauda, F., Giromini, L., Viglione, D. J., Zennaro, A. Category: Tags: Neuropsychology
Giromini, L., Viglione, D.J., Pineda, J.A., Porcelli, P., Hubbard, D., Zennaro, A., & Cauda, F. (2017). Human Movement Responses to the Rorschach and Mirroring Activity: An fMRI Study. Assessment, 0, 1-14.
AbstractIt has been suggested that the Rorschach human movement (M) response could be associated with an embodied simulation mechanism mediated by the mirror neuron system (MNS). To date, evidence for this hypothesis comes from two electroencephalogram studies and one repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study. To provide additional data on this topic, the Rorschach was administered during fMRI to a sample of 26 healthy adult volunteers. Activity in MNS-related brain areas temporally associated with M responses was compared with such activity for other, non-M Rorschach responses. Data analyses focused on MNS regions of interest identified by Neurosynth, a web-based platform for large scale, automated meta-analysis of fMRI data. Consistent with the hypothesis that M responses involve embodied simulation and MNS activity, univariate region of interest analyses showed that production of M responses associated with significantly greater activity in MNS-related brain areas when compared with non-M Rorschach responses. This finding is consistent with the traditional interpretation of the M code.
Year Published: 2017 Author: Cauda, F., Giromini, L., Hubbard, D., Pineda, J. A., Porcelli, P., Viglione, D. J., Zennaro, A. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Reliability, Validity Tags: Neuropsychology
Graceffo, R. A., Mihura, J. L., & Meyer, G. J. (2014). A meta-analysis of an implicit measure of personality functioning: The Mutuality of Autonomy Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 96, 581-595.
AbstractThe Mutuality of Autonomy scale (MA) is a Rorschach variable designed to capture the degree to which individuals mentally represent self and other as mutually autonomous versus pathologically destructive (Urist, 1977). Discussions of the MA’s validity found in articles and chapters usually claim good support, which we evaluated by a systematic review and meta-analysis of its construct validity. Overall, in a random effects analysis across 24 samples (N = 1,801) and 91 effect sizes, the MA scale was found to maintain a relationship of r = .20, 95% CI [.16, .25], with relevant validity criteria. We hypothesized that MA summary scores that aggregate more MA response-level data would maintain the strongest relationship with relevant validity criteria. Results supported this hypothesis (aggregated scoring method: r = .24, k = 57, S = 24; non aggregated scoring methods: r =.15, k =34, S=10; p=.039, 2-tailed). Across 7 exploratory moderator analyses, only 1 (criterion method) produced significant results. Criteria derived from the Thematic Apperception Test produced smaller effects than clinician ratings, diagnostic differentiation, and self-attributed characteristics; criteria derived from observer reports produced smaller effects than clinician ratings and self-attributed characteristics. Implications of the study’s findings are discussed in terms of both research and clinical work.
Year Published: 2014 Author: Graceffo, R. A., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Literature Review/Meta-Analysis Tags:
Gritti, E. S., Marino, D. P., Lang, M., & Meyer, G. J. (2017). Assessing narcissism using Rorschach-based imagery and behavior validated by clinician reports: Studies with adult patients and nonpatients. Assessment, 0, 1-19.
AbstractWe evaluate 11 Rorschach variables with potential for assessing grandiosity and narcissism. Seven of these variables were drawn from previous literature: Omnipotence, Idealization, Reflection, Personal Knowledge Justification, Exhibitionism, Magic, and Elevated Mood States; four were developed for this research: Expanded Personal Reference, Narcissistic Devaluation, Narcissistic Deflation, and Narcissistic Denial. Using Rorschach protocols from American normative adults and Italian adult outpatients, the dimensional structure of these variables was evaluated by principal components analysis, and validity was tested by correlations with clinician ratings of narcissism on two scales from the Shedler–Westen Assessment Procedure–200 that were made after at least five sessions with the primary clinician. A cohesive dimension was found in both data sets defined by Expanded Personal Reference, Personal Knowledge Justification, Omnipotence, and Idealization, and it was meaningfully correlated with the clinician ratings of narcissism (M r = .41). Implications of the findings include the applicability of these variables in clinical practice and research for assessing narcissistic personality dynamics.
Year Published: 2017 Author: Gritti, E. S., Lang, M., Marino, D. P., Meyer, G. J. Category: Reliability, Validity Tags: International (non US), Psychopathology
Gritti, E. S., Meyer, G. J., Bornstein, R. F., Marino, D. P., & Marco, J. d. (2020). Narcissism and reactions to a self-esteem insult: An experiment using predictions from self-report and the Rorschach task. Journal of Personality Assessment.
AbstractWe used self-reported narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability and a component derived from 11 potential grandiosity and narcissism variables (GNVs) coded from Rorschach behavior to predict fluctuations in self-esteem and their links to anger and defensive reactions. We assessed state mood, state self-esteem, and performance attributions in 105 college students who underwent a self-esteem manipulation involving success followed by failure on cognitive testing. Self-reported grandiosity predicted the disavowal of effortful ability as a factor in failure, but we did not replicate other previously reported findings for this variable. Self-reported vulnerability predicted oscillations in self-reported mood and self-esteem. The GNV scale predicted spontaneously expressed hostility and externalization following self-esteem insult, and attributions mediated its relationship with anger expressed after failure. We discuss implications of these results and recommend additional replication research.
Year Published: 2020 Author: Category: Case Study Tags: Personality Disorders
Grønnerød, C. (2003). Temporal stability in the Rorschach method : A meta-analytic review. Journal Of Personality Assessment, 80, 272-293.
AbstractThe temporal stabilities of the Rorschach method scoring systems were investigated. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to find all test-retest studies, both regular and from control samples in therapy evaluation studies. Meta-analyses were conducted for samples, individual entries, and variables in 36 samples. Separate analyses were made for 10 samples using the Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1993). The temporal stability was high, especially those obtained from regression model predictions. The CS consistently shows higher stability than other systems, whereas increasing retest intervals leads to decreasing stability. Shortcomings of the available studies are highlighted and discussed, and recommendations are given for design and methodology.
Year Published: 2003 Author: Grønnerød, C. Category: Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Reliability, Statistical Tags:
Grønnerød, C. (2004). Rorschach assessment of changes following psychotherapy: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Personality Assessment, 83, 256–276.
AbstractI examined Rorschach assessment of personality changes following psychotherapy. I conducted a comprehensive literature search to find all studies using the Rorschach method at least twice for the same participant in connection with psychotherapy. I conducted meta-analyses for 38 samples, and I performed regression analyses to identify moderating factors. Across all Rorschach scores, the total weighted sample effect size was r = .26, and nearly half the variables obtained effect sizes higher than .30. Several moderating factors were found. Most important, effect sizes increased with longer and more intensive therapy. More concern for interscorer reliability was associated with larger effect sizes, whereas a higher degree of scorer blinding was associated with smaller effect size magnitudes. Predicted levels of change based on the regression models indicated substantial increases in effect size with longer therapies. The data indicate that many elements in the Rorschach are valid indicators of change despite the poor reputation the method has acquired within psychotherapy research.
Year Published: 2004 Author: Grønnerød, C. Category: Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Validity Tags: Psychopathology
Gross, A., Newton, R. R., & Brooks, R. B. (1990). Rorschach responses in healthy, community dwelling older adults. Journal of Personality Assessment, 55, 335-343.
AbstractFive predicted relationships between age and intellectual level and 16 Rorschach variables were examined through a cross-sectional analysis of 47 healthy, community-dwelling elderly men and women. Subjects were compared by age and intellectual level using gender, level of medication, and scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Geriatric Social Readjustment Questionnaire (GSRQ) as covariates. Screening tests for psychiatric and physical illness, recent life events, and hearing and vision loss were administered. In contrast to prior research suggesting changes in Rorschach scores with differences in age and intellectual level, only one significant difference was found for these variables. The data suggest that age and intellectual level may contribute less to Rorschach responses than was previously thought.
Year Published: 1990 Author: Brooks, R. B., Gross, A., Newton, R. R. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Norms, Statistical Tags: Demographics
Gurley, J. R., Sheehan, B. L., Piechowski, L. D., & Gray, J. (2014). The admissibility of the R-PAS in court. Psychological Injury and Law, 7, 9-17.
AbstractAbstract The admissibility of the Rorschach has been a concern of forensic psychologists for many years. The focus of this debate has been the Comprehensive System, which is the most researched of the current Rorschach Systems available in the USA. However, recently, a new, competing system has been published: the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS; Meyer et al., Rorschach Performance Assessment System: Administration, Coding, Interpretation, and Technical Manual, 2011). Using Heilbrun’s (Law and Human Behavior 16:257–272, 1992) guidelines as a framework, we examine the admissibility of this new system according to the standards outlined in Daubert (1993) and Frye (1923). We conclude that we have reservations about the admissibility of the R-PAS in court at the present time, notwithstanding ongoing work on this system.
Year Published: 2014 Author: Gray, J., Gurley, J. R., Piechowski, L. D., Sheehan, B. L. Category: Forensic, Statistical Tags: Court/Legal, Offender
Hartmann, E. & Benum, K. (2019). Rorschach assessment of two distinctive personality states of a person with dissociative identity disorder. Journal of Personality Assessment, 101, 213-228.
AbstractThis case study used test data from a patient with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) to illustrate how two main personality states of the patient (“Ann” and “Ben”) seemed to function. The Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R–PAS; Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard, & Erdberg, 2011) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems–Circumplex (IIP–64; Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000), administered to Ann and Ben in separate settings, exposed two diverse R–PAS and IIP–64 profiles. Ann’s R–PAS profile suggested an intellectualized style of information processing with few indications of psychological problems. Ben’s profile indicated severe perceptual, cognitive, and interpersonal difficulties combined with suspicion and anxiety. Ann’s IIP–64 profile suggested minor interpersonal problems, whereas Ben’s indicated serious relational difficulties. The findings were discussed in relation to the theory of trauma-related structural dissociation of the personality (van der Hart, Nijenhuis, & Steele, 2006), which implies an enduring split in the organization of the personality with more or less separate entities with their own sense of self, perception of the world, and ways of organizing emotional, cognitive, and social functions. The DID personality structure is seen as a defense strategy and as a pathway in the personality development producing serious psychological pain and symptoms.
Year Published: 2019 Author: Benum, K., Hartmann, E. Category: Case Study Tags: Psychopathology
Hartmann, E., & Grønnerød, C. (2009). Rorschach variables and Big Five Scales as predictors of military training completion: A replication study of the selection of candidates to the naval special forces in Norway. Journal Of Personality Assessment, 91, 254-264.
AbstractWe tested 140 male candidates at the Naval Special Forces (NFS) of Norway on the Rorschach (Exner, 2003; Rorschach, 1921/1942) and the Norwegian version of the Big Five personality dimensions (Engvik & Føllesdal, 2005). Rorschach variables significantly correlated with training completion (effect sizes of re = .14–.25), whereas none of the Big Five factors or facets did. The combination of Rorschach and Big Five variables framed in the illusory mental health concept provided strong predictive ability. Testing under stress produced slightly higher predictive validity coefficients between the Rorschach variables and pass–fail than under calm testing. The findings support the results of Hartmann, Sunde, Kristensen, and Martinussen (2003), indicating that Rorschach variables and indications of good mental health may be valid predictors of NFS training.
Year Published: 2009 Author: Grønnerød, C., Hartmann, E. Category: Tags: International (non US)
Hartmann, E., & Hartmann, T. (2014). The impact of exposure to internet-based information about the Rorschach and the MMPI–2 on psychiatric outpatients’ ability to simulate mentally healthy test performance. Journal Of Personality Assessment, 96, 432-444.
AbstractTo examine the impact of Internet-based information about how to simulate being mentally healthy on the Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and the MMPI–2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989), 87 psychiatric outpatients completed the tests under 4 conditions: uncoached and Internet-coached outpatients under faking healthy instructions (faking patients and Internet-faking patients) and patients and nonpatients under standard instructions (standard patients and standard nonpatients). On the Rorschach, faking patients and Internet-faking patients did not manage to portray healthy test performance and, like standard patients, revealed a significantly greater number of perceptual and cognitive disturbances than standard nonpatients. Faking patients scored in the psychopathological direction on most variables. Internet-faking patients produced constricted protocols with significantly higher F% (57%) and lower use of provoking and aggressive contents than the other groups. On the MMPI–2, faking patients and Internet-faking patients were able to conceal symptoms and, like standard nonpatients, scored in the normal range on the clinical scales. The validity scale L successfully detected the faking patients and the Internet-faking patients, whereas the F scale only distinguished the Internet-faking patients and K only the faking patients. We conclude that Internet-based information could threaten test validity.
Year Published: 2014 Author: Hartmann, E., Hartmann, T. Category: Validity Tags: Court/Legal, Psychosis
Hartmann, E., Nørbech, P. B., & Grønnerød, C. (2006). Psychopathic and non psychopathic violent offenders on the Rorschach: Discriminative features and comparisons with schizophrenic inpatient and university student samples. Journal of Personality Assessment, 86, 291–305.
AbstractWe examined discriminant and convergent validity of theoretically relevant Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) variables (Exner, 2003) and Meloy and Gacono’s (1992) aggression variables in distinguishing between imprisoned violent offenders (VO) who were psychopathic (P–VO) and non psychopathic (NP–VO) under psychiatric treatment, schizophrenic inpatients (ISs), and university students (USs). A total of 7 of 12 variables discriminated significantly between P–VO and NP–VO, which suggests more aggressive, cognitive, and interpersonal disturbances among P–VO. We also found significant differences between VOs, ISs, and USs. Logistic regression analyses revealed that AgPast accumulated incrementally in the classification of P–VO versus NP–VO, and AgC accumulated incrementally in the classification of VO versus IS when entered after CS variables. The findings support the view that psychopathy is a distinctive form of antisocial personality disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) organized at a more severe pathological level.
Year Published: 2006 Author: Grønnerød, C., Hartmann, E., Nørbech, P. C. B. Category: Forensic Tags: Court/Legal, Offender, Psychopathology, Psychosis
Hilsenroth, M. J., Eudell-Simmons, E. M., DeFife, J. A., & Charnas, J. W. (2007). The Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI): An examination of reliability, validity, and diagnostic efficiency. International Journal of Testing, 7, 269-291.
AbstractThis study investigates the reliability, validity, and diagnostic efficiency of the Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI) in relation to the accurate identification of psychotic disorder (PTD) patients. The PTI is a revision of the Rorschach Schizophrenia Index (SCZI), designed to achieve several criteria, including an increase in the diagnostic utility of the Rorschach for assessing thought disorder and to increase clinical focus on the dimensional aspects of impaired perceptions and thoughts (Exner, 2000a; 2000b). Seventy-eight patients who met DSM-IV criteria for a PTD or Axis II disorder [PTD = 33; borderline personality disorder (BPD) = 23; cluster A personality disorders (CA) = 9; cluster C personality disorders (CC) = 13] and 40 non-patients were compared on the PTI. The results of this study indicate that the PTI can be reliably scored and is internally consistent. In addition, the PTI can be used to effectively differentiate PTD patients from a non-patient sample as well as from personality disorder patients characterized by moderate to, at times, severe perceptual thought disorder. Finally, the PTI can also be employed for classification purposes in ways that are clinically meaningful in the diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. Conceptual and methodological issues are discussed in relation to the assessment of psychosis.
Year Published: 2007 Author: Charnas, J. W. , DeFife, J. A., Eudell-Simmons, E. M., Hilsenroth, M. J. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Reliability, Statistical, Validity Tags: Psychopathology
Hinrichs, J. (2016). Inpatient therapeutic assessment with narcissistic personality disorder. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98, 111-123.
AbstractGrowing evidence supporting the effectiveness of Collaborative/Therapeutic Assessment (C/TA) has led clinicians and researchers to apply C/TA to a variety of clinical populations and treatment settings. This case example presents a C/TA inpatient adaptation illustrated with narcissistic personality disorder. After a brief overview of salient concepts, I provide a detailed account of the clinical interview, test interpretation paired with diagnostic considerations specific to narcissism, planned intervention, and discussion of assessment results. Throughout the case study, I attempt to demonstrate defining features of C/TA, inpatient adaptations, and clinical techniques that encourage meaningful engagement with a “hard to reach” personality.
Year Published: 2016 Author: Hinrichs, J. Category: Case Study Tags: Psychopathology