Rorschach Performance Assessment System® (R-PAS®)

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Acklin, M. W., McDowell, C. J. II, Verschell, M. S., & Chan, D. (2000). Interobserver agreement, intraobserver reliability, and the Rorschach comprehensive system. Journal of Personality Assessment, 74, 15-47.
AbstractInterrater agreement and reliability for the Rorschach have recently come under increasing scrutiny. This is the second report examining methods of Comprehensive System reliability using principles derived from observational methodology and applied behavioral analysis. This study examined a previous nonpatient sample of 20 protocols (N = 412 responses) and also examined a new clinical sample of 20 protocols (N = 374 responses) diagnosed with Research Diagnostic Criteria. Reliability was analyzed at multiple levels of Comprehensive System data, including response level individual codes and coding decisions and ratios, percentages, and derivations from the Structural Summary. With a number of exceptions, most Comprehensive System codes, coding decisions, and summary scores yield acceptable, and in many instances excellent, levels of reliability. Limitations arising from the nature of Rorschach data and Comprehensive System coding criteria are discussed.
Year Published: 2000 Author: Acklin, M. W., Chan, D. , McDowell, C. J. II, Verschell, M. S. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Reliability Tags: Psychopathology
Allen, J., & Dana, R. H. (2004). Methodological issues in cross-cultural and multicultural rorschach research. Journal of Personality Assessment, 82, 189-206. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa8202_7
AbstractHermann Rorschach researched the utility of his inkblot experiment to understand psychopathology and cultural differences. Contemporary research with the Rorschach has evaluated its utility as a test, although it may more properly represent a clinical method with somewhat different evaluation criteria. Recent controversy regarding the adequacy of the Rorschach as a test and the adequacy of its normative data has at times distorted and oversimplified important methodological issues inherent in the study of cultural difference. Cultural processes remain a central and inadequately examined variable in Rorschach research; an important emergent area of inquiry is the Rorschach's clinical utility as a cross-cultural assessment instrument. We review multicultural and cross-cultural methodological issues intrinsic to contemporary Rorschach research here. Consideration of cultural issues enlarges and enriches the Rorschach clinical utility debate and suggests underexplored research strategies that can contribute to its resolution.
Year Published: 2004 Author: Allen, J., Dana, R. H. Category: Norms, Reliability, Validity Tags: General
Ando, A., Salatino, A., Giromini, L., Ricci, R., Pignolo, C., Cristofanelli, S., Ferro, L., Viglione, D. J., & Zennaro, A. (2015). Embodied simulation and ambiguous stimuli: The role of the mirror neuron system. Brain Research, 1629, 135-142.
AbstractAccording to the “embodied simulation theory,” exposure to certain visual stimuli would automatically trigger action simulation in the mind of the observer, thereby originating a “feeling of movement” modulated by the mirror neuron system(MNS). Grounded on this conceptualization, some of us recently suggested that when exposed to the Rorschach inkblots, in order to see a human movement(e.g., “a person running”) in those ambiguous stimuli, the observer would need to experience a “feeling of movement” via embodied simulation. The current study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to further test this hypothesis. Specifically, we investigated whether temporarily interfering with the activity of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG;aputativeMNSarea) usingrTMS would decrease the propensity to see human movement (M) in the Rorschach inkblots. Thirty-six participants were exposed to the Rorschach stimuli twice, i.e., during a baseline (without rTMS) and soon after inhibitory rTMS. As for the rTMS condition, half of the sample was stimulated over the LIFG (experimental group) and the other half over the Vertex (control group). In line with our hypothesis, the application of rTMS over LIFG, but not over Vertex, yielded a statistically significant reduction in the attribution of M to the ambiguous stimuli, with large effect size. These findings may be interpreted as being consistent with the hypothesis that there is a link between the MNS and the “feeling of movement” people may experience, when observing ambiguous stimuli such as the Rorschach cards.
Year Published: 2015 Author: Ando, A., Cristofanelli, S., Ferro, L., Giromini, L., Pignolo, C., Ricci, R., Salatino, A., Viglione, D. J., Zennaro, A. Category: Tags: International (non US), Neuropsychology
Asari, T., Konishi, S., Jimura, K., Chikazoe, J., Nakamura, N., & Miyashita, Y. (2008). Right temporopolar activation associated with unique perception. Neuroimage, 41, 145. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.01.059
AbstractUnique mode of perception, or the ability to see things differently from others, is one of the psychological resources required for creative mental activities. Behavioral studies using ambiguous visual stimuli have successfully induced diverse responses from subjects, and the unique responses defined in this paradigm were observed in higher frequency in the artistic population as compared to the nonartistic population. However, the neural substrates that underlie such unique perception have yet to be investigated. In the present study, ten ambiguous figures were used as stimuli. The subjects were instructed to say what the figures looked like during functional MRI scanning. The responses were classified as "frequent", "infrequent" or "unique" responses based on the appearance frequency of the same response in an independent age- and gender-matched control group. An event-related analysis contrasting unique vs. frequent responses revealed the greatest activation in the right temporal pole, which survived a whole brain multiple comparison. An alternative parametric modulation analysis was also performed to show that potentially confounding perceptual effects deriving from differences in visual stimuli make no significant contribution to this temporopolar activation. Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have shown the involvement of the temporal pole in perception-emotion linkage. Thus, our results suggest that unique perception is produced by the integration of perceptual and emotional processes, and this integration might underlie essential parts of creative mental activities
Year Published: 2008 Author: Asari, T., Chikazoe, J., Jimura, K., Konishi, S., Miyashita, Y., Nakamura, N. Category: Tags: International (non US), Neuropsychology
Asari, T., Konishi, S., Jimura, K., Chikazoe, J., Nakamura, N., & Miyashita, Y. (2010). Amygdalar enlargement associated with unique perception. Cortex, 46, 94-99. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2008.08.001
AbstractInterference by amygdalar activity in perceptual processes has been reported in many previous studies. Consistent with these reports, previous clinical studies have shown amygdalar volume change in multiple types of psychotic disease presenting with unusual perception. However, the relationship between variation in amygdalar volume in the normal population and the tendency toward unusual or unique perception has never been investigated. To address this issue, we defined an index to represent the tendency toward unique perception using ambiguous stimuli: subjects were instructed to state what the figures looked like to them, and ‘‘unique responses’’ were defined depending on the appearance frequency of the same responses in an age- and gender-matched control group. The index was defined as the ratio of unique responses to total responses per subject. We obtained structural brain images and values of the index from sixty-eight normal subjects. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed a positive correlation between amygdalar volume and the index. Since previous reports have indicated that unique responses were observed at higher frequency in the artistic population than in the nonartistic normal population, this positive correlation suggests that amygdalar enlargement in the normal population might be related to creative mental activity.
Year Published: 2010 Author: Asari, T., Chikazoe, J., Jimura, K., Konishi, S., Miyashita, Y., Nakamura, N. Category: Tags: Demographics, International (non US), Neuropsychology, Psychosis
Asari, T., Konishi, S., Jimura, K., Chikazoe, J., Nakamura, N., & Miyashita, Y. (2010). Amygdalar modulation of frontotemporal connectivity during the inkblot test. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 182, 103-110. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.01.002
AbstractUnique and unusual responses to inkblot stimuli evoked by emotionally vulnerable psychiatric patients have been considered as examples of interference of emotion with perceptual processes. However, few studies have investigated the interaction between emotion-related and perception-related neural circuits during performance of the inkblot test. In our recent studies using the inkblot stimuli, enlargement of the amygdala was revealed in association with frequent production of unique responses to the inkblot stimuli. Additionally, our studies demonstrated right temporopolar activation associated with the production of unique responses, as well as left anterior prefrontal and bilateral occipitotemporal activation associated with the production of typical responses. On the basis of these results, we hypothesized that the amygdala is involved in modulation of the connectivity among the frontotemporal regions identified in the activation analysis. To address this issue, we performed a functional connectivity analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data, using physiophysiological interaction implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping 2 (SPM2). This analysis revealed that the amygdala imposed a positive modulation on the connection from the anterior prefrontal region to the temporopolar region, and a negative modulation on the connection from the temporopolar region to the occipitotemporal regions. These results suggest that interference of emotion affects perception during the inkblot test.
Year Published: 2010 Author: Asari, T., Chikazoe, J., Jimura, K., Konishi, S., Miyashita, Y., Nakamura, N. Category: Tags: International (non US), Neuropsychology, Psychopathology
Atkinson, L. (1986). The comparative validities of the Rorschach and MMPI: A meta-analysis. Canadian Psychology, 27, 238-247.
AbstractA meta-analysis comparing "undirected" and "conceptual" MMPI studies, and conceptual Rorschach and MMPI studies, indicated the following conclusions, (a) Conceptual work more successfully validates an assessment instrument than does undirected investigation, (b) The validatory success of the "average" conceptual Rorschach study is comparable to that of similar MMPI work. This finding suggests that the former's questionable status may be based on sociocultural factors, rather than scientific ones, (c) The "average" conceptual Rorschach or MMPI study has only modest explanatory power, (d) Investigators' misuse of x2 has resulted in exaggerated effect size in many instances where the statistic was employed. It is suggested that future research be judged on the coherence of its inference processes, the specificity of its predictions, and the amount of variance it explains.
Year Published: 1986 Author: Atkinson, L. Category: Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Statistical, Validity Tags:
Bandura, A. (1954). The Rorschach white space response and "oppositional" behavior. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 18, 17-21. doi:10.1037/h0056911
AbstractData obtained from Rorschach tests given to 81 high school students support the following conclusions: (1)… the utilization of the experience type as a differential factor in the interpretation of S (white space) response should be discontinued until evidence for its justification becomes available." (2) The hypothesis that the S response reflects oppositional tendencies was partially corroborated. (3) There was no evidence for inferring inadequacy or self-distrust feelings from the S response.
Year Published: 1954 Author: Bandura, A. Category: Child/Adolescent, Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Validity Tags:
Bandura, A. (1954). The Rorschach white space response and perceptual reversal. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48, 113-118. doi:10.1037/h0063608
AbstractThe number and temporal sequence of the occurrence of space responses on the Rorschach and the rate of perceptual reversal on the Necker Cube were obtained. Found a significant positive relationship of moderate degree between the rate of reversal on the Necker Cube and the number of primary space responses on the Rorschach and that the frequency of occurrence of primary space responses varied according to the exposure time, with the relative number of primary space responses increasing with increasing time of exposure of the Rorschach cards.
Year Published: 1954 Author: Bandura, A. Category: Child/Adolescent, Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation Tags: General
Barnett, D., Heinze, H. J., & Arble, E. (2013). Risk, resilience, and the Rorschach: A longitudinal study of children who experienced sexual abuse. Journal of Personality Assessment, 95, 600-609. doi:10.1080/00223891.2013.823437
AbstractExperiencing sexual abuse increases the risk that children will report or otherwise demonstrate problems with emotion, behavior, and health. This longitudinal study of 44 children who experienced sexual abuse examined whether information processing as assessed via the Rorschach Inkblot Test was associated with child-reported depression symptoms assessed via the Children’s Depression Inventory (Kovacs, 1992) concurrently and an average of 15 months later. Children whose Rorschach protocols were relatively free of scores suggesting intense distress, complex processing, and sexual content were more likely to experience remission of depression symptoms at follow-up. Findings provide incremental validity for certain Rorschach indexes to inform prognosis regarding depression symptoms and perhaps their treatment.
Year Published: 2013 Author: Arble, E., Barnett, D., Heinze, H. J. Category: Child/Adolescent Tags: Court/Legal
Benjestorf, S. T., Viglione, D. J., Lamb, J. D., & Giromini, L. (2013). Suppression of aggressive Rorschach responses among violent offenders and nonoffenders. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28, 2981-3003. doi:10.1177/0886260513488688
AbstractThis Rorschach study explored the suppression of aggression content when violent offenders and non offenders are asked to present themselves as not posing a threat of dangerousness in a court role-playing context. Aggressive content and complexity in this suppressive role-play context was compared to a neutral control condition. A total of 41 participants, approximately half violent offenders and half non offenders took the Rorschach under both conditions. Results indicate that both groups suppressed aggression content on the Rorschach without altering response complexity. This large effect size for testing condition may partly explain the inconsistencies across previous studies. It is possible that violent offenders have typically been tested in highly suppressive conditions whereas non offender or normative groups may have been tested in relatively low suppression conditions. If so, aggression score differences may be a reflection of the testing condition, not group differences. Both instructional sets produced similar levels of complexity, so that individuals do not simplify responses when they screen out aggressive attributions. Violent offenders did not differ from nonviolent offenders in terms of aggression content, but did produce more simplistic records. In addition, this study also undertook a semantic, textual analysis and found that individuals in the suppressive condition tended to eliminate many response elaborations, particularly those with negative of threatening connotations.
Year Published: 2013 Author: Benjestorf, S. T., Giromini, L., Lamb, J. D., Viglione, D. J. Category: Forensic Tags: Aggression/Aggressive Behavior, Court/Legal, Offender
Blasczyk-Schiep, S., Kazén, M., Kuhl, J., & Grygielski, M. (2011). Appraisal of suicidal risk among adolescents and young adults through the Rorschach Test. Journal of Personality Assessment, 93, 518-526. doi:10.1080/00223891.2011.594130
AbstractThe aims of this study are to investigate suicidal behaviors among adolescents and young adults and to test an index composed using Rorschach test responses related to an increased risk of suicide. Using a cross-sectional design, 4 groups were studied (according to criteria of the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment [Posner, Oquendo, Gould, Stanley, & Davies, 2007]): A group with suicidal ideation (n = 30), a group with parasuicidal behavior (n = 30), a group with near-lethal suicide attempts (n = 26), and a control group (n = 30). Responses to the Rorschach test yielded 6 potential indicators of suicidal behavior (scored according to Exner’s Comprehensive System and the Suicidal Index for Adolescents; Silberg & Armstrong, 1992). Rorschach scores including at least 4 of these 6 indicators selected 69% of the people who had committed serious suicide attempts. The Rorschach Suicidal Index reached an acceptable reliability and was related to other criteria of suicide risk, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck, Ward, Mendelsohn, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961) and Linehan Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL–I; Linehan, Goodstein, Nielsen, & Chiles, 1983). Moreover, the Rorschach Suicidal Index showed incremental validity over the BDI and the RFL–I to predict suicidal behavior. A path analysis additionally showed that low social support was an important mediator between the Rorschach Suicidal Index and the number of suicide attempts committed by participants.
Year Published: 2011 Author: Blasczyk-Schiep, S., Grygielski, M., Kazén, M., Kuhl, J. Category: Reliability, Statistical, Validity Tags:
Bombel, G., Mihura, J. L., & Meyer, G. J. (2009). An examination of the construct validity of the Rorschach Mutuality of Autonomy (MOA) Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 227-237. doi:10.1080/00223890902794267
AbstractUsing 100 clinical cases, we examined the construct validity of the Mutuality of Autonomy (MOA) Scale (Urist, 1977) using Westen and Rosenthal’s (2003) rcontrast - construct validity (CV) procedure for quantifying a pattern of convergent-discriminant relationships between a target measure and a set of criterion variables. Our 15 criterion variables included the Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003) variables, a CS-based measure of ego strength (Resnick, 1994), and 3 subscales from the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (Westen, Lohr, Silk, Kerber, & Goodrich, 1990). We generated the rcontrast - CV coefficients to test 2 competing hypotheses: that the MOA Scale primarily measures object relations (OR) quality or that it primarily measures psychopathology. Results suggest that the MOA Scale is an equally potent measure of OR and psychopathology regardless of the MOA Scale index used.
Year Published: 2009 Author: Bombel, G., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Validity Tags: Psychopathology
Bornstein, R. F. (1996). Construct validity of the Rorschach Oral Dependency Scale: 1967-1995. Psychological Assessment, 8, 200–505. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.8.2.200
AbstractA review of research examining the construct validity of J. M. Masling, L. Rabie, and S. H. Blondheim's ( 1967 ) Rorschach Oral Dependency (ROD) scale as a measure of interpersonal dependency revealed that this scale has demonstrated good interrater reliability, and that evidence regarding the convergent and discriminant validity of the ROD scale is generally strong. Mixed results have been obtained in studies assessing the internal reliability of ROD scale scores. There have been very few studies examining the predictive validity and retest reliability of the ROD scale, and few studies assessing the relationship of ROD scores to scores on other objective and projective measures of dependency. Implications of these findings for laboratory and clinical research involving the ROD scale are discussed, and suggestions for future studies in this area are offered.
Year Published: 1996 Author: Bornstein, R. F. Category: Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Reliability, Validity Tags:
Bornstein, R. F. (1999). Criterion validity of objective and projective dependency tests: A meta-analytic assessment of behavioral prediction. Psychological Assessment, 11, 48-57. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.11.1.48
AbstractA meta-analysis of published studies in which scores on objective (i.e., self-report) or projective measures of interpersonal dependency were used to predict some aspect of dependency-related behavior revealed that validity coefficients for projective tests (number of comparisons = 32) were generally larger than validity coefficients for objective tests (number of comparisons = 54). The relationships of setting in which data were collected, source of behavioral ratings, and participant classification method on observed test score-behavior correlations were also assessed. Implications of these findings for use of objective and projective dependency measures in clinical, laboratory, and field settings are discussed.
Year Published: 1999 Author: Bornstein, R. F. Category: Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Validity Tags:
Bornstein, R. F. (2012). Rorschach score validation as a model for 21st-century personality assessment. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94, 26-38. doi:10.1080/00223891.2011.627961
AbstractRecent conceptual and methodological innovations have led to new strategies for documenting the construct validity of test scores, including performance-based test scores. These strategies have the potential to generate more definitive evidence regarding the validity of scores derived from the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM) and help resolve some long-standing controversies regarding the clinical utility of the Rorschach. After discussing the unique challenges in studying the Rorschach and why research in this area is important given current trends in scientific and applied psychology, I offer 3 overarching principles to maximize the construct validity of RIM scores, arguing that (a) the method that provides RIM validation measures plays a key role in generating outcome predictions; (b) RIM variables should be linked with findings from neighboring subfields; and (c) rigorous RIM score validation includes both process-focused and outcome-focused assessments. I describe a 4-step strategy for optimal RIM score derivation (formulating hypotheses, delineating process links, generating outcome predictions, and establishing limiting conditions); and a 4-component template for RIM score validation (establishing basic psychometrics, documenting outcome-focused validity, assessing process-focused validity, and integrating outcome- and process-focused validity data). The proposed framework not only has the potential to enhance the validity and utility of the RIM, but might ultimately enable the RIM to become a model of test score validation for 21st-century personality assessment.
Year Published: 2012 Author: Bornstein, R. F. Category: Validity Tags:
Brabender, V. M. (2014). A review of 'Personality assessment in depth: A casebook'. Journal of Personality Assessment, 96, 576-577. doi:10.1080/00223891.2014.893520
AbstractNo abstract available
Year Published: 2014 Author: Brabender, V. M. Category: Critiques, Comments & Replies Tags:
Campos, R. C., Mesquita, I., Besser, A., & Blatt, S. J. (2014). Neediness and depression in women. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 78, 16-33. doi:10.1521/bumc.2014.78.1.16
AbstractIn a 6-month longitudinal design, the authors examined the links between neediness and increases in depressive symptoms in women. Neediness was assessed with the self-report Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), supplemented by a projective measure that assessed an important component of dependency, oral dependency, on the Rorschach. Results indicate that neediness correlated significantly with increases in depressive symptoms over the 6 months. Orality interacted with neediness to substantially increase the prediction of increases in depressive symptoms. (Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic,78[1], 16–33)
Year Published: 2014 Author: Besser, A., Blatt, S. J., Campos, R. C., Mesquita, I. Category: Tags: International (non US), Psychopathology
Charek, D. B., Meyer, G. J., & Mihura, J. L. (2016). The impact of an ego depletion manipulation on performance-based and self-report assessment measures. Assessment, 23, 637–649. doi:10.1177/1073191115586580
AbstractWe investigated the impact of ego depletion on selected Rorschach cognitive processing variables and self-reported affect states. Research indicates acts of effortful self-regulation transiently deplete a finite pool of cognitive resources, impairing performance on subsequent tasks requiring self-regulation. We predicted that relative to controls, ego-depleted participants’ Rorschach protocols would have more spontaneous reactivity to color, less cognitive sophistication, and more frequent logical lapses in visualization, whereas self-reports would reflect greater fatigue and less attentiveness. The hypotheses were partially supported; despite a surprising absence of self-reported differences, ego-depleted participants had Rorschach protocols with lower scores on two variables indicative of sophisticated combinatory thinking, as well as higher levels of color receptivity; they also had lower scores on a composite variable computed across all hypothesized markers of complexity. In addition, self-reported achievement striving moderated the effect of the experimental manipulation on color receptivity, and in the Depletion condition it was associated with greater attentiveness to the tasks, more color reactivity, and less global synthetic processing. Results are discussed with an emphasis on the response process, methodological limitations and strengths, implications for calculating refined Rorschach scores, and the value of using multiple methods in research and experimental paradigms to validate assessment measures.
Year Published: 2016 Author: Charek, D. B., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation Tags:
Cristofanelli, S., Pignolo, C., Ferro, L., Ando’, A., & Zennaro, A. (2016). Rorschach nomological network and resting-state large scale brain networks: Introducing a new research design. Rorschachiana, 37, 74–92. doi:10.1027/1192-5604/a000078
AbstractDespite advances in neuroscience, the field of personality assessment has not yet taken full advantage of the progress in neuroimaging techniques. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is one of the most widely used neuroimaging techniques and allows the detection of brain processes and their anatomically detailed correspondences. In the last fifteen years, few studies have developed research designs using the Rorschach test in fMRI settings, analyzing the relationship between Rorschach variables and brain neural circuits. Although their findings were promising, some methodological issues related to fMRI research design have been outlined. Recently, personality neuroscience is emerging as a new field of research that attempts to deepen and refine neurobiological and psychological theories of personality using fMRI in resting state conditions. Recent studies report that resting state networks show a direct relationship with psychological traits. The aim of the present article is to propose a new research design that employs resting-state functional connectivity analyses to explore the brain’s functional architecture in relation to psychological constructs of Rorschach variables related to perceptual styles and personality traits.
Year Published: 2016 Author: Ando, A., Cristofanelli, S., Ferro, L., Pignolo, C., Zennaro, A. Category: General Tags:
Cronbach, L. J. (1949). Statistical methods applied to Rorschach scores: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 46, 393-429.
Year Published: 1949 Author: Cronbach, L. J. Category: Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Reliability, Statistical, Validity Tags:
Dao, T. K., Prevatt, F., & Horne, H. L. (2008). Differentiating psychotic patients from nonpsychotic patients with the MMPI-2 and Rorschach. Journal of Personality Assessment, 90, 93-101. doi:10.1080/00223890701693819
AbstractThe goal of this study was to examine the incremental validity and the clinical utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2 (MMPI–2; (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) and Rorschach (Rorschach, 1942) with regard to differential diagnosis in a sample of adult inpatients with a primary psychotic disorder or a primary mood disorder without psychotic features. Diagnostic efficiency statistics have suggested that the Rorschach Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI; Exner, 2000a, 2000b) was better than MMPI–2 scales in discriminating psychotic patients from nonpsychotic patients. We compared the 84% overall correct classification rate (OCC) for the PTI to an OCC of 70% for the MMPI–2 scales. Adding the MMPI–2 scales to the PTI resulted in a decrease in OCC of 1%, whereas adding the PTI to the MMPI–2 resulted in an increase in OCC of 14%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power, negative predictive power, and kappa were equal or higher with only the PTI in the model.
Year Published: 2008 Author: Dao, T. K., Horne, H. L., Prevatt, F. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Statistical, Validity Tags: Psychosis
Dawes, R. M. (1999). Two methods for studying the incremental validity of a Rorschach variable. Psychological Assessment, 11, 297-302. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.11.3.297
AbstractThe MMPI can be scored by a clerk. Also, both the number and form level of Rorschach responses can be easily assessed. Other Rorschach variables should be examined for their incremental validity beyond number of responses and form level, or from these variables plus simple MMPI variables. This study applied multiple regression analyses to 2 data sets with reasonable criteria of pathology that were predicted by W. Perry and D. J. Viglione's (1991) Ego Impairment Index considered alone. The index had only slight incremental validity over and above the number of responses and form quality, and even less when the average MMPI elevation and L. R. Goldberg's (1965) formula for predicting psychosis versus neurosis were entered before these Rorschach variables. Another way of assessing incremental validity is through the use of unit weights, that is, adding standardized variables weighted equally rather than optimally. The unit-weighted incremental validity analysis resulted in the same conclusions.
Year Published: 1999 Author: Dawes, R. M. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, General, Validity Tags: General, Psychopathology
De Koninck, J. M., & Crabbé-Declève, G. (1971). Field dependence and Rorschach white-space figure-ground reversal responses. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 33, 1191-1194.
AbstractIt was hypothesized that field-independent Ss would produce more white space figure-ground reversal responses (S) on the Rorschach test than field-dependent Ss. From 27 females and 25 males given the rod-and-frame test the 7 most field-independent and the 7 most field-dependent took the Rorschach test. The 7 field-independent Ss produced more white space reversals. A control on the number of reversal responses as a function of time of exposure and a control on sex differences showed no contaminating effect. Thus, both measures may refer to the same dimension.
Year Published: 1971 Author: Crabbe-Decleve, G., De Koninck, J. M. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Statistical Tags: General
Dean, K. L., Viglione, D. J., Perry, W., & Meyer, G. J. (2007). A method to optimize the response range while maintaining Rorschach Comprehensive System validity. Journal of Personality Assessment, 89, 149-161. doi:10.1080/00223890701468543.
AbstractBrief and lengthy Rorschach records have been identified as common problems in protocol administration. Clinicians have debated how to prevent overly short and long records, but they have been reluctant to alter standardized administration for fear of introducing bias. The present study examines a nonintrusive method for constraining responses by prompting for an extra response when only one is offered per card and by removing the card after four responses are given. Among patients who typically produce brief records, consisting of a residential sample of civil and forensic patients with a range of disordered thinking, the alternative administration method demonstrated improved Comprehensive System validity in assessing thought disorder and eliminated the need to re-administer the test due to fewer than 14 responses. The findings have clinical implications for protocol administration with thought-disordered populations that typically produce brief records.
Year Published: 2007 Author: Dean, K. L., Meyer, G. J., Perry, W., Viglione, D. J. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Forensic, Validity Tags: Psychosis
Dean, K. L., Viglione, D. J., Perry, W., & Meyer, G. J. (2008). Correction to: "A method to optimize the response range while maintaining Rorschach Comprehensive System validity." Journal of Personality Assessment, 90, 204. doi: 10.1080/00223890701845542
AbstractThere was an error reporting descriptive statistics and group comparisons for the Complexity variable in Table 2. All analyses in the study were conducted with the Complexity raw score as intended. However, the values reported in Table 2 were for a per response complexity score (i.e., the Complexity/R ratio). The correct values are given for the Complexity raw scores that should have been reported in Table 2.
Year Published: 2008 Author: Dean, K. L., Meyer, G. J., Perry, W., Viglione, D. J. Category: Critiques, Comments & Replies Tags: General
Diener, M. J. (2013). Focus on Clinical Practice - Review of 'An Introduction to the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS)'. Independent Practitioner, Winter, 12-14.
AbstractNo abstract available
Year Published: 2013 Author: Diener, M. J. Category: Critiques, Comments & Replies, Norms, Reliability Tags:
Diener, M. J., Hilsenroth, M. J., Shaffer, S. A., & Sexton, J. E. (2011). A meta-analysis of the relationship between the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index (EII) and psychiatric severity. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 18, 464-485. doi:10.1002/cpp.725
AbstractThe present study examined the relationship between the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index (EII) and psychiatric severity. Search procedures yielded 13 independent samples (total N = 1402, average n = 108, standard deviation = 90) for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Inter-rater reliability analyses demonstrated that coding of effect sizes and moderator variables was completed with good to excellent reliability. Results indicated that higher EII scores were associated with greater psychiatric severity, with an overall weighted effect size of r = 0.29, p = 0.000002 (95% confidence interval = 0.17–0.40), supporting the EII’s validity as a measure of psychological impairment. Publication bias analyses did not indicate any significant cause for concern regarding the results. The data were demonstrably heterogeneous (Q = 56.82, p = 0.0000001), and results of post-hoc tests indicated that effect sizes with dependent variables obtained via researcher ratings were significantly larger than any of the following: effect sizes with dependent variables obtained via clinician ratings, informant ratings, information about level of treatment or placement status or self-report ratings (p’s = 0.0005, 0.003, <0.001, <0.001, respectively). In addition, there was a trend for effect sizes based on performance-based measures to be larger than those based on information about level of treatment or placement status (p = 0.098) as well as those based on self-report measures (p = 0.076). Other moderator analyses were non-significant (p’s > 0.10).
Year Published: 2011 Author: Diener, M. J., Hilsenroth, M. J., Sexton, J. E., Shaffer, S. A. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Reliability, Validity Tags: Psychopathology
Dzamonja-Ignjatovic, T., Smith, B. L., Jocic, D. D., & Milanovic, M. (2013). A comparison of new and revised Rorschach measures of schizophrenic functioning in a Serbian clinical sample. Journal of Personality Assessment, 95, 471-478. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2013.810153
AbstractWe empirically evaluated indexes derived from the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) and the Rorschach Performance Assessment System(R–PAS) that are used for the assessment of psychotic functioning in schizophrenia. We compared the Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) and the Ego Impairment Index (EII–2) with their revised versions: Thought and Perception Composite (TP–Comp) and EII–3.We evaluated their predictive validity for differentiating schizophrenic from non schizophrenic patients in a Serbian sample. The sample consisted of 211 (109 men and 102women, 18–50 years old) inpatients in Serbia who were divided into 2 groups: schizophrenic (100) and non schizophrenic (111). Test administration, coding, and form quality classification followed CS guidelines. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the new indexes TP–Comp and EII–3have slightly better predictive power than their counterparts, PTI and EII–2, in identification of schizophrenia, and that TP–Comp performed better than other indexes, although all 4 indexes were successful in differentiating these groups. The results supported the use of TP–Comp in diagnosis of schizophrenia and generally provided evidence for the utility of the Rorschach in evaluating psychosis and for its use in a cross-national context.
Year Published: 2013 Author: Dzamonja-Ignjatovic, T., Jocic, D. D., Milanovic, M., Smith, B. L. Category: Tags: International (non US), Psychosis
Erard, R. E. (2012). Expert testimony using the Rorschach Performance Assessment System in psychological injury cases. Psychological Injury and Law, 5, 122-134. doi:10.1007/s12207-012-9126-7
AbstractThe Rorschach Performance Assessment System(R-PAS; Meyer et al. 2011) is a new system for administering, scoring, and interpreting the Rorschach Inkblot Test that is designed to make the best possible use of currently available scientific and clinical evidence. Many features of R-PAS are well-suited to forensic evaluation generally and to psychological evaluations in psychological injury cases in particular. Among them, R-PAS: (a) offers an alternative to self-report methods that adds incremental validity, (b) provides a useful check against exaggerated or minimized symptom presentation, (d) generates evidence concerning implicit traits and behavioral tendencies, (e) offers techniques for adjusting for abnormal response sets, (f) uses internationally applicable reference data that do not exaggerate or minimize pathology, (g) organizes results according to the strength of the evidence, and (h) presents results on which are interpretations are based in a manner easy for the intelligent layperson to grasp. Despite its recent for malintroduction to the professional assessment community, RPAS takes advantage of decades of research in peer reviewed publications (including the insights of Rorschach critics) and builds on established validity and general acceptance for most of its procedures and features. The article describes the standards and criteria applying to expert psychological testimony in U.S. federal and state courts and applies them to Rorschach-based testimony in general and R-PAS-based testimony specifically. It is argued that when the system is properly used and applied and when such testimony is appropriately formulated, it should be found admissible in both state and federal courtrooms.
Year Published: 2012 Author: Erard, R. E. Category: Critiques, Comments & Replies, Forensic, Validity Tags: Court/Legal
Erard, R. E. (2014, Aug 8). Ask the experts: 10 reasons to reconsider NOT using the Rorschach in your child custody evaluations. Association of Family and Conciliation Courts eNEWS, 9.
AbstractNo abstract available
Year Published: 2014 Author: Erard, R. E. Category: Child/Adolescent, Critiques, Comments & Replies Tags: Child Custody, Court/Legal
Erard, R. E., Meyer, G. J., & Viglione, D. J. (2014). Setting the record straight: Comment on Gurley, Piechowski, Sheehan, and Gray (2014) on the admissibility of the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) in court. Psychological Injury and Law, 7, 165-177. doi: 10.1007/s12207-014-9195-x
AbstractAlthough the Rorschach is widely used in child custody evaluations, its contributions are often underestimated. As an evidence supported, performance-based method, it adds incremental validity to self-report findings. It yields insights about perceptual and coping styles, reality testing and logical thinking, emotional regulation and sensitivity, and relational schemas. Some evaluators hesitate to use the Rorschach due to concerns about reliability and validity, admissibility, and courtroom presentation. R-PAS, a relatively new Rorschach system, shows particular promise in addressing such concerns. It selects and organizes variables according to their degree of empirical support and clinical meaningfulness, uses internationally relevant, non pathologizing reference data, uses contemporary psychometric statistical methods, and presents results in a format that is easy for a court to understand.
Year Published: 2014 Author: Erard, R. E., Meyer, G. J., Viglione, D. J. Category: Critiques, Comments & Replies, Forensic, Reliability, Validity Tags: Court/Legal
Erard, R. E., & Viglione, D. J. (2014). The Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) in child custody evaluations. Journal of Child Custody, 11, 159-180. doi:10.1080/15379418.2014.943449
AbstractGurley et al. (Psychological Injury and Law 7:9–17,2014) express reservations about the admissibility of testimony based on the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (RPAS)in court. They question whether there is sufficient evidentiary foundation in the underlying psychometrics and adequate general acceptance among psychologists for R-PAS-based testimony to meet either the Daubert or Frye criteria for admissibility and also raise doubts about how well it meets the criteria for the use of forensic tests proposed by Heilbrun (Law and Human Behavior 16:257–272, 1992). This invited comment addresses their concerns about the admissibility of R-PAS-based testimony and corrects some erroneous statements about the psychometrics of R-PAS and the pertinent empirical literature. Gurley et al. characterize R-PAS as being in competition with the established Comprehensive System (CS; Exner 2003), though we clarify that it is actually an evolutionary development from the CS and designed to be a replacement for it. We also point out how their conclusion that R-PAS-based forensic testimony may be hazardous or premature is based on an insufficient familiarity with the R-PAS scientific and professional literature, a misinterpretation of the Frye and Daubert evidentiary standards, and a mischaracterization of several of Heilbrun’s (Law and Human Behavior16:257–272, 1992) criteria for the use of tests in forensic testimony.
Year Published: 2014 Author: Erard, R. E., Viglione, D. J. Category: Child/Adolescent, Forensic Tags: Child Custody, Court/Legal
Exner, J. E. (1996). Critical bits and the Rorschach response process. Journal of Personality Assessment, 67, 464-477.
AbstractThis article reviews some of the basic elements of visual science, especially the concept of critical stimulus bits, as they apply to the Rorschach response process. Illustrations and data are presented to depict how stimulus features such as contour, position, color, and internal sets can be critical in encouraging or thwarting the selection of certain kinds of Rorschach answers. The findings are discussed in the context of detecting projected material in Rorschach answers.
Year Published: 1996 Author: Exner Jr., J. E. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, General Tags: General
Finn, S. E. (2012). Implications of recent research in neurobiology for psychological assessment. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94, 440-449. doi:10.1080/00223891.2012.700665
AbstractIn this article, I highlight 3 major findings from current research in attachment, neurobiology, psychopathology, and psychotherapy: (a) attachment failures and early trauma are related to many forms of psychopathology, (b) one of the major sequelae of developmental trauma is disorganization of the right hemisphere, and (c) psychological interventions that promote emotional experience, awareness, and expression are more effective than those that rely solely on cognitive restructuring. I then suggest implications of these findings for the practice of psychological assessment: (a) the relationship between client and assessor is more important than has been acknowledged generally, (b) performance-based personality tests are very useful in part because they tap right-hemisphere and subcortical brain functioning and provide information that clients cannot directly report, and (c) when psychological assessments provide clients with powerful emotional experiences, therapeutic change is often the result. I illustrate these points with excerpts from the Therapeutic Assessment of a 27-year-old man with compulsive sexual behavior.
Year Published: 2012 Author: Finn, S. E. Category: Trauma Tags: Psychopathology
Gacono, C. B., Bannatyne-Gacono, L., Meloy, J. R., & Baity, M. R. (2005). The Rorschach extended aggression scores. Rorschachiana, 27, 164-190. doi: 10.1027/1192-5604.27.1.164
AbstractThe Extended Aggression Scores were developed to quantify the aggressive Rorschach imagery produced by violent Antisocial Personality Disordered (ASPD; American Psychiatric Association, 1980) offenders. In this article we present information concerning the reliability, psychometric properties, and construct validity of the scores and discuss their clinical meanings. We conclude that while AgPotential, AgVulnerability and Sadomasochism need additional research, the current research supports inclusion of the more frequently appearing AgContent and AgPast scores in the Comprehensive System.
Year Published: 2005 Author: Baity, M. R., Bannatyne-Gacono, L., Gacono, C. B., Meloy, J. R. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Forensic, General, Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Reliability, Statistical, Validity Tags: Aggression/Aggressive Behavior, Offender, Psychopathology
Ganellen, R. J. (1994). Attempting to conceal psychological disturbance: MMPI defensive response sets and the Rorschach. Journal of Personality Assessment, 63, 423-437. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa6303_3
AbstractThis study examined whether a defensive response set during a psychological evaluation would skew responses on the Rorschach such that subjects could conceal psychological difficulties. Subjects in this study were commercial airline pilots who were required to undergo an independent psychological evaluation after completing a treatment program for alcohol or substance abuse. Subjects knew the results of the psychological evaluation would be taken into account by the Federal Aviation Administration and their employer when deciding whether to reinstate their pilots license and allowing them to return to work. Thus, subjects potentially had considerable incentive to attempt to create a favorable impression. As expected, subjects responded in a defensive manner, as assessed by standard Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) validity scales. It was expected that a guarded, defensive response set would be manifested on the Rorschach by fewer than average responses, a constricted response style, and an attempt to appear conventional. It was also expected that no or few signs of difficulty would be produced on the Rorschach if subjects were successful in their efforts to create a favorable impression. In spite of defensive efforts to create a favorable impression, these subjects produced valid Rorschach protocols that suggested they experienced emotional distress, self-critical ideation, and difficulties in their interpersonal relationships, problems not reported on the MMPI, Implications of these findings for clinical practice.
Year Published: 1994 Author: Ganellen, R. J. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Forensic, General, Reliability, Statistical, Validity Tags: Court/Legal, General, Psychopathology
Garb, H. N. (1999). Call for a moratorium on the use of the Rorschach Inkblot Test in clinical and forensic settings. Assessment, 6, 313-317. doi:10.1177/107319119900600402
AbstractA call is issued for a moratorium on the use of the Rorschach Inkblot Test in clinical and forensic (but not research) settings. The moratorium should last until we have determined which Rorschach scores are valid and which ones are invalid. Unfortunately, for most Rorschach scores, results from meta-analyses have been uninformative. Also, incremental validity has not been studied for most Rorschach scores. Furthermore, positive findings for Rorschach scores have rarely been independently replicated. Finally, selective reporting of results has been a problem: Some investigators report significant results but not nonsignificant results. The magnitude of this problem has not been determined. Unless a moratorium is adopted, clinicians will continue to interpret invalid scores along with valid scores.
Year Published: 1999 Author: Garb, H. N. Category: Critiques, Comments & Replies, Validity Tags: General
Garb, H. N., Wood, J. M., Nezworski, M. T., Grove, W. M., & Stejskal, W. J. (2001). Toward a resolution of the Rorschach controversy. Psychological Assessment, 13, 433-448. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.13.4.433
AbstractComments are made about the articles comprising the first round of the Special Series on the Rorschach. G. Strieker and J. R. Gold (1999) and D. J. Viglione (1999) praised the Rorschach, but they consistently failed to cite negative findings. R. M. Dawes (1999) obtained results that provide modest support for the Rorschach, but one of his data sets is flawed. J. B. Miller, R. Rosenthal, R. F. Bornstein, D. T. R. Berry, and S. Brunell-Neuleib (1999) reported the results of a meta-analysis, but, among other problems, their coders were not blind to the results of all the studies. J. Hunsley and J. M. Bailey (1999) made a strong case for concluding that there is no scientific basis for using the Rorschach. Recommendations are made for resolving the Rorschach controversy.
Year Published: 2001 Author: Garb, H. N., Grove, W. M., Nezworski, M. T., Stejskal, W. J., Wood, J. M. Category: Critiques, Comments & Replies, General Tags:
Gibby, R. G., & Stotsky, B. A. (1953). The relation of Rorschach free association to inquiry. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 17, 359-364.
Year Published: 1953 Author: Gibby, R. G., Stotsky, B. A. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Reliability, Validity Tags:
Giromini, L., Ando, A., Morese, R., Salatino, A., Di Girolamo, M., Viglione, D. J., & Zennaro, A. (2016). Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) and vulnerability to stress: A preliminary study on electrodermal activity during stress. Psychiatry Research, 246, 166-172.
AbstractThis study investigated the predictive validity of the ten Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) variables from the Stress and Distress domain, by testing whether they predicted increased sympathetic reactivity to a mild, laboratory-induced stress, occurred one week after Rorschach administration. A relatively small student sample (N = 52) contributed to this research: During a first meeting (T1) participants were administered the Rorschach task according to R-PAS guidelines; about one week later (T2) their electrodermal activity (EDA) was recorded during exposure to a mild laboratory stress-inducing task. Based on literature indicating that exposure to stress tends to increase physiological vulnerability/reactivity to stressful situations, we anticipated that Stress and Distress R-PAS variables measured at T1 would positively correlate with increased sympathetic reactivity to stress at T2, as indicated by greater EDA changes from baseline to stress and recovery. Results partially confirmed our hypotheses: The (a) the mean of and (b) the majority of the Stress and Distress R-PAS variables were significantly correlated, in the expected direction, with medium and medium to large effect sizes.
Year Published: 2016 Author: Ando, A., Di Girolamo, M., Giromini, L., Morese, R. , Salatino, A., Viglione, D. J., Zennaro, A. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Reliability, Validity Tags: International (non US)
Giromini, L., Porcelli, P., Viglione, D. J., Parolin, L., & Pineda, J. A. (2010). The feeling of movement: EEG evidence for mirroring activity during the observations of static, ambiguous stimuli in the Rorschach cards. Biological Psychology, 85, 233-241. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2010.07.008
AbstractThe mirror neuron system (MNS) is considered the best explanation for the neural basis of embodied simulation. To date no study has investigated if it may be activated not only by actual but by the “feeling of movement”. The Rorschach test cards were used to investigate evidence of EEGmu wave suppression at central areas, an index of MNSactivity, since human movement responses (M) to the Rorschach elicit such feelings of movement. Nineteen healthy volunteers observed different sets of Rorschach stimuli during attribution, identification, and observation of human movements and different scenarios while their EEG were recorded. Significant mu suppression occurred when subjects perceived movement, regardless of the experimental condition. These results show that mirroring can be activated by static, ambiguous stimuli such as Rorschach cards, suggesting that internal representation of the “feeling of movement” may be sufficient to trigger MNS activity even when minimal external cues are present.
Year Published: 2010 Author: Giromini, L., Parolin, L., Pineda, J. A., Porcelli, P., Viglione, D. J. Category: Tags: Neuropsychology
Giromini, L., Viglione, D. J., Brusadelli, E., Lang, M., Reese, J. B., & Zennaro, A. (2015). Cross-cultural validation of the Rorschach Developmental Index. Journal of Personality Assessment, 97, 348-353. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2014.960927
AbstractThe Developmental Index (DI) has recently been introduced as a composite Rorschach measure of psychological development and maturation, which can be used both with the Comprehensive System (Exner, 2003), and with the recently developed Rorschach Performance Assessment System (Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard, & Erdberg, 2011). As the DI is new, and its validity has not yet been investigated with independent non-U.S. samples, we tested the correlation between DI and age using 3 relatively large samples, 2 of which were from outside the United States (total N D 902). Other Rorschach variables presumably associated with maturation, such as complexity and productivity, were also investigated. As expected, the DI significantly correlated with age, with small variations across the 3 samples. Importantly, the correlation between DI and age remained statistically significant also after controlling for productivity (i.e., the number of responses) and complexity.
Year Published: 2015 Author: Brusadelli, E., Giromini, L., Lang, M., Reese, J. B., Viglione, D. J., Zennaro, A. Category: Child/Adolescent, Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Validity Tags: Demographics, International (non US)
Giromini, L., Viglione, D. J., Brusadelli, E., Zennaro, A., Di Girolamo, M., & Porcelli, P. (2016). The effects of neurological priming on the Rorschach: A pilot experiment on the human movement response. Rorschachiana, 37, 58-73. doi:10.1027/1192-5604/a000077
AbstractThis article introduces a new scientific paradigm that might allow the investigation of the neurological correlates of the Rorschach test without using expensive and time consuming tools such as the fMRI or the EEG. Based on the literature on the Mozart effect, we anticipated that preactivation of a given brain network before exposure to the Rorschach cards would associate with the increased production of responses (or determinants) presumed to be associated with that same network. To pilot test this hypothesis, we focused on the postulated link between human movement (M) responses and mirror neuron system (MNS) activity, and investigated whether preactivation of the MNS would associate with the increased production of M responses. Specifically, 30 students were administered a subset of Rorschach cards immediately after watching three short videos aimed at activating the MNS at three different levels (no/low/high activation). Although no statistically significant differences among the three conditions were found, a linear trend in the expected direction (p = .107), with medium effect size (?² = .087) was observed. In addition to providing information on the M response, this article introduces a new scientific paradigm to investigate the neurological correlates of the Rorschach.
Year Published: 2016 Author: Brusadelli, E., Di Girolamo, M., Giromini, L., Porcelli, P., Viglione, D. J., Zennaro, A. Category: Tags: International (non US), Neuropsychology
Giromini, L., Viglione, D. J., & McCullaugh, J. (2015). Introducing a Bayesian approach to determining degree of fit with existing Rorschach norms. Journal of Personality Assessment, 97, 354-363. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2014.959127
AbstractThis article offers a new methodological approach to investigate the degree of fit between an independent sample and 2 existing sets of norms. Specifically, with a new adaptation of a Bayesian method, we developed a user-friendly procedure to compare the mean values of a given sample to those of 2 different sets of Rorschach norms. To illustrate our technique, we used a small, U.S. community sample of 80 adults and tested whether it resembled more closely the standard Comprehensive System norms (CS 600; Exner, 2003), or a recently introduced, internationally based set of Rorschach norms (Meyer, Erdberg, & Shaffer, 2007). Strengths and limitations of this new statistical technique are discussed.
Year Published: 2015 Author: Giromini, L., McCullaugh, J., Viglione, D. J. Category: Norms, Statistical Tags:
Giromini, L., Viglione, D. J., Zennaro, A., & Cauda F. (2017). Neural activity during production of Rorschach responses: An fMRI study. Psychiatric Research: Neuroimaging, 262, 25-31.
AbstractRecently, a lot of effort has been made to ground Rorschach interpretations to their evidence base. To date, however, no studies have yet described, via fMRI, what brain areas get involved when one takes the Rorschach. To fill this gap in the literature, we administered the ten-inkblot stimuli to 26 healthy volunteers during fMRI. Analysis of BOLD signals revealed that, compared to fixating a cross, looking at the Rorschach inkblots while thinking of what they might be associated with higher temporo-occipital and fronto-parietal activations, and with greater activity in some small, sub-cortical regions included in the limbic system. These findings are in line with the traditional conceptualization of the test, as they suggest that taking the Rorschach involves (a) high-level visual processing, (b) top-down as well as bottom-up attentional processes, and (c) perception and processing of emotions and emotional memories.
Year Published: 2017 Author: Cauda, F., Giromini, L., Viglione, D. J., Zennaro, A. Category: General Tags: General, Neuropsychology
Graceffo, R. A., Mihura, J. L., & Meyer, G. J. (2014). A meta-analysis of an implicit measure of personality functioning: The Mutuality of Autonomy Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 96, 581-595. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2014.919299
AbstractThe Mutuality of Autonomy scale (MA) is a Rorschach variable designed to capture the degree to which individuals mentally represent self and other as mutually autonomous versus pathologically destructive (Urist, 1977). Discussions of the MA’s validity found in articles and chapters usually claim good support, which we evaluated by a systematic review and meta-analysis of its construct validity. Overall, in a random effects analysis across 24 samples (N = 1,801) and 91 effect sizes, the MA scale was found to maintain a relationship of r = .20, 95% CI [.16, .25], with relevant validity criteria. We hypothesized that MA summary scores that aggregate more MA response-level data would maintain the strongest relationship with relevant validity criteria. Results supported this hypothesis (aggregated scoring method: r = .24, k = 57, S = 24; non aggregated scoring methods: r =.15, k =34, S=10; p=.039, 2-tailed). Across 7 exploratory moderator analyses, only 1 (criterion method) produced significant results. Criteria derived from the Thematic Apperception Test produced smaller effects than clinician ratings, diagnostic differentiation, and self-attributed characteristics; criteria derived from observer reports produced smaller effects than clinician ratings and self-attributed characteristics. Implications of the study’s findings are discussed in terms of both research and clinical work.
Year Published: 2014 Author: Graceffo, R. A., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Literature Review/Meta-Analysis Tags:
Gritti, E. S., Marino, D. P., Lang, M., & Meyer, G. J. (2017). Assessing narcissism using Rorschach-based imagery and behavior validated by clinician reports: Studies with adult patients and nonpatients. Assessment, 0, 1-19. doi:10.1177/1073191117715728
AbstractWe evaluate 11 Rorschach variables with potential for assessing grandiosity and narcissism. Seven of these variables were drawn from previous literature: Omnipotence, Idealization, Reflection, Personal Knowledge Justification, Exhibitionism, Magic, and Elevated Mood States; four were developed for this research: Expanded Personal Reference, Narcissistic Devaluation, Narcissistic Deflation, and Narcissistic Denial. Using Rorschach protocols from American normative adults and Italian adult outpatients, the dimensional structure of these variables was evaluated by principal components analysis, and validity was tested by correlations with clinician ratings of narcissism on two scales from the Shedler–Westen Assessment Procedure–200 that were made after at least five sessions with the primary clinician. A cohesive dimension was found in both data sets defined by Expanded Personal Reference, Personal Knowledge Justification, Omnipotence, and Idealization, and it was meaningfully correlated with the clinician ratings of narcissism (M r = .41). Implications of the findings include the applicability of these variables in clinical practice and research for assessing narcissistic personality dynamics.
Year Published: 2017 Author: Gritti, E. S., Lang, M., Marino, D. P., Meyer, G. J. Category: Reliability, Validity Tags: International (non US), Psychopathology
Grønnerød, C. (2003). Temporal stability in the Rorschach method : A meta-analytic review. Journal Of Personality Assessment, 80, 272-293.
AbstractThe temporal stabilities of the Rorschach method scoring systems were investigated. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to find all test-retest studies, both regular and from control samples in therapy evaluation studies. Meta-analyses were conducted for samples, individual entries, and variables in 36 samples. Separate analyses were made for 10 samples using the Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1993). The temporal stability was high, especially those obtained from regression model predictions. The CS consistently shows higher stability than other systems, whereas increasing retest intervals leads to decreasing stability. Shortcomings of the available studies are highlighted and discussed, and recommendations are given for design and methodology.
Year Published: 2003 Author: Grønnerød, C. Category: General, Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Reliability, Statistical Tags: General
Grønnerød, C. (2004). Rorschach assessment of changes following psychotherapy: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Personality Assessment, 83, 256–276.
AbstractI examined Rorschach assessment of personality changes following psychotherapy. I conducted a comprehensive literature search to find all studies using the Rorschach method at least twice for the same participant in connection with psychotherapy. I conducted meta-analyses for 38 samples, and I performed regression analyses to identify moderating factors. Across all Rorschach scores, the total weighted sample effect size was r = .26, and nearly half the variables obtained effect sizes higher than .30. Several moderating factors were found. Most important, effect sizes increased with longer and more intensive therapy. More concern for interscorer reliability was associated with larger effect sizes, whereas a higher degree of scorer blinding was associated with smaller effect size magnitudes. Predicted levels of change based on the regression models indicated substantial increases in effect size with longer therapies. The data indicate that many elements in the Rorschach are valid indicators of change despite the poor reputation the method has acquired within psychotherapy research.
Year Published: 2004 Author: Grønnerød, C. Category: General, Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Validity Tags: General, Psychopathology
Gross, A., Newton, R. R., & Brooks, R. B. (1990). Rorschach responses in healthy, community dwelling older adults. Journal of Personality Assessment, 55, 335-343. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa5501&2_30
AbstractFive predicted relationships between age and intellectual level and 16 Rorschach variables were examined through a cross-sectional analysis of 47 healthy, community-dwelling elderly men and women. Subjects were compared by age and intellectual level using gender, level of medication, and scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Geriatric Social Readjustment Questionnaire (GSRQ) as covariates. Screening tests for psychiatric and physical illness, recent life events, and hearing and vision loss were administered. In contrast to prior research suggesting changes in Rorschach scores with differences in age and intellectual level, only one significant difference was found for these variables. The data suggest that age and intellectual level may contribute less to Rorschach responses than was previously thought.
Year Published: 1990 Author: Brooks, R. B., Gross, A., Newton, R. R. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, General, Norms, Statistical Tags: Demographics, General
Gurley, J. R., Sheehan, B. L., Piechowski, L. D., & Gray, J. (2014). The admissibility of the R-PAS in court. Psychological Injury and Law, 7, 9-17. doi:10.1007/s12207-014-9182-2
AbstractAbstract The admissibility of the Rorschach has been a concern of forensic psychologists for many years. The focus of this debate has been the Comprehensive System, which is the most researched of the current Rorschach Systems available in the USA. However, recently, a new, competing system has been published: the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS; Meyer et al., Rorschach Performance Assessment System: Administration, Coding, Interpretation, and Technical Manual, 2011). Using Heilbrun’s (Law and Human Behavior 16:257–272, 1992) guidelines as a framework, we examine the admissibility of this new system according to the standards outlined in Daubert (1993) and Frye (1923). We conclude that we have reservations about the admissibility of the R-PAS in court at the present time, notwithstanding ongoing work on this system.
Year Published: 2014 Author: Gray, J., Gurley, J. R., Piechowski, L. D., Sheehan, B. L. Category: Forensic, Statistical Tags: Court/Legal, Offender
Hartmann, E., & Grønnerød, C. (2009). Rorschach variables and Big Five Scales as predictors of military training completion: A replication study of the selection of candidates to the naval special forces in Norway. Journal Of Personality Assessment, 91, 254-264. doi:10.1080/00223890902794309
AbstractWe tested 140 male candidates at the Naval Special Forces (NFS) of Norway on the Rorschach (Exner, 2003; Rorschach, 1921/1942) and the Norwegian version of the Big Five personality dimensions (Engvik & Føllesdal, 2005). Rorschach variables significantly correlated with training completion (effect sizes of re = .14–.25), whereas none of the Big Five factors or facets did. The combination of Rorschach and Big Five variables framed in the illusory mental health concept provided strong predictive ability. Testing under stress produced slightly higher predictive validity coefficients between the Rorschach variables and pass–fail than under calm testing. The findings support the results of Hartmann, Sunde, Kristensen, and Martinussen (2003), indicating that Rorschach variables and indications of good mental health may be valid predictors of NFS training.
Year Published: 2009 Author: Grønnerød, C., Hartmann, E. Category: General Tags: General, International (non US)
Hartmann, E., & Hartmann, T. (2014). The impact of exposure to internet-based information about the Rorschach and the MMPI–2 on psychiatric outpatients’ ability to simulate mentally healthy test performance. Journal Of Personality Assessment, 96, 432-444. doi:10.1080/00223891.2014.882342
AbstractTo examine the impact of Internet-based information about how to simulate being mentally healthy on the Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and the MMPI–2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989), 87 psychiatric outpatients completed the tests under 4 conditions: uncoached and Internet-coached outpatients under faking healthy instructions (faking patients and Internet-faking patients) and patients and nonpatients under standard instructions (standard patients and standard nonpatients). On the Rorschach, faking patients and Internet-faking patients did not manage to portray healthy test performance and, like standard patients, revealed a significantly greater number of perceptual and cognitive disturbances than standard nonpatients. Faking patients scored in the psychopathological direction on most variables. Internet-faking patients produced constricted protocols with significantly higher F% (57%) and lower use of provoking and aggressive contents than the other groups. On the MMPI–2, faking patients and Internet-faking patients were able to conceal symptoms and, like standard nonpatients, scored in the normal range on the clinical scales. The validity scale L successfully detected the faking patients and the Internet-faking patients, whereas the F scale only distinguished the Internet-faking patients and K only the faking patients. We conclude that Internet-based information could threaten test validity.
Year Published: 2014 Author: Hartmann, E., Hartmann, T. Category: General, Validity Tags: Court/Legal, General, Psychosis
Hartmann, E., Nørbech, P. B., & Grønnerød, C. (2006). Psychopathic and non psychopathic violent offenders on the Rorschach: Discriminative features and comparisons with schizophrenic inpatient and university student samples. Journal of Personality Assessment, 86, 291–305.
AbstractWe examined discriminant and convergent validity of theoretically relevant Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) variables (Exner, 2003) and Meloy and Gacono’s (1992) aggression variables in distinguishing between imprisoned violent offenders (VO) who were psychopathic (P–VO) and non psychopathic (NP–VO) under psychiatric treatment, schizophrenic inpatients (ISs), and university students (USs). A total of 7 of 12 variables discriminated significantly between P–VO and NP–VO, which suggests more aggressive, cognitive, and interpersonal disturbances among P–VO. We also found significant differences between VOs, ISs, and USs. Logistic regression analyses revealed that AgPast accumulated incrementally in the classification of P–VO versus NP–VO, and AgC accumulated incrementally in the classification of VO versus IS when entered after CS variables. The findings support the view that psychopathy is a distinctive form of antisocial personality disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) organized at a more severe pathological level.
Year Published: 2006 Author: Grønnerød, C., Hartmann, E., Nørbech, P. C. B. Category: Forensic, General Tags: Court/Legal, Offender, Psychopathology, Psychosis
Hilsenroth, M. J., Eudell-Simmons, E. M., DeFife, J. A., & Charnas, J. W. (2007). The Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI): An examination of reliability, validity, and diagnostic efficiency. International Journal of Testing, 7, 269-291. doi:10.1080/15305050701438033
AbstractThis study investigates the reliability, validity, and diagnostic efficiency of the Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI) in relation to the accurate identification of psychotic disorder (PTD) patients. The PTI is a revision of the Rorschach Schizophrenia Index (SCZI), designed to achieve several criteria, including an increase in the diagnostic utility of the Rorschach for assessing thought disorder and to increase clinical focus on the dimensional aspects of impaired perceptions and thoughts (Exner, 2000a; 2000b). Seventy-eight patients who met DSM-IV criteria for a PTD or Axis II disorder [PTD = 33; borderline personality disorder (BPD) = 23; cluster A personality disorders (CA) = 9; cluster C personality disorders (CC) = 13] and 40 non-patients were compared on the PTI. The results of this study indicate that the PTI can be reliably scored and is internally consistent. In addition, the PTI can be used to effectively differentiate PTD patients from a non-patient sample as well as from personality disorder patients characterized by moderate to, at times, severe perceptual thought disorder. Finally, the PTI can also be employed for classification purposes in ways that are clinically meaningful in the diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. Conceptual and methodological issues are discussed in relation to the assessment of psychosis.
Year Published: 2007 Author: Charnas, J. W. , DeFife, J. A., Eudell-Simmons, E. M., Hilsenroth, M. J. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, General, Reliability, Statistical, Validity Tags: General, Psychopathology
Hinrichs, J. (2016). Inpatient therapeutic assessment with narcissistic personality disorder. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98, 111-123. doi:10.1080/00223891.2015.1075997
AbstractGrowing evidence supporting the effectiveness of Collaborative/Therapeutic Assessment (C/TA) has led clinicians and researchers to apply C/TA to a variety of clinical populations and treatment settings. This case example presents a C/TA inpatient adaptation illustrated with narcissistic personality disorder. After a brief overview of salient concepts, I provide a detailed account of the clinical interview, test interpretation paired with diagnostic considerations specific to narcissism, planned intervention, and discussion of assessment results. Throughout the case study, I attempt to demonstrate defining features of C/TA, inpatient adaptations, and clinical techniques that encourage meaningful engagement with a “hard to reach” personality.
Year Published: 2016 Author: Hinrichs, J. Category: Case Study Tags: Psychopathology
Horn, S. L., Meyer, G. J., & Mihura, J. L. (2009). Impact of card rotation on the frequency of Rorschach reflection responses. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 346-356. doi: 10.1080/00223890902936090
AbstractIn this article, we describe the impact of Rorschach (Exner, 2003) card rotation and orientation preference on reflection responses. We anticipated exposure to sideways-orientated cards would facilitate landscape-type reflections, particularly for cards people find appealing to view sideways. When we examined 4 experimental conditions using an undergraduate sample, results in Experiments 1 (n = 123) and 2 (n = 38) showed that viewing the cards sideways produced a large increase in reflections. In Experiment 3 (n = 69), we examined preferences to view each card in a particular orientation. Cards producing higher rates of landscape reflections in the experimental conditions that encouraged turning were strongly correlated with preferences to view those cards sideways. The results imply reflections are in part a function of stimulus properties from viewing the card in a rotated orientation and not just the personal characteristics of the test taker.
Year Published: 2009 Author: Horn, S. L., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation Tags: General
Hunsley, J., & Bailey, J. M. (2001). Wither the Rorschach? An analysis of the evidence. Psychological Assessment, 13, 472–485.
AbstractIn the previous Special Section, the authors presented empirical evidence and logical analysis that were sufficient to demonstrate that the widespread use of the Rorschach in clinical, legal, forensic, and occupational settings is unwarranted on both scientific and ethical grounds (J. Hunsley and J. M. Bailey, see record [rid]1999-11130-004[/rid]). To expand on their analysis and to respond to issues raised in the previous and current Special Sections, they begin their article by examining a number of conceptual issues that are at the heart of the disagreements about the Rorschach. The focus is then shifted to the central issue of clinical utility, with an emphasis on why current research is insufficient to demonstrate the utility of the Rorschach. Next, the psychometric issues raised by I. B. Weiner (see record [rid]2001-05665-002[/rid]) are addressed and an alternative perspective on the psychometric viability of the Rorschach is provided. Finally, the authors conclude with some suggestions for future directions that must be taken in research to address the substantive concerns raised by Rorschach critics.
Year Published: 2001 Author: Bailey, J. M., Hunsley, J. Category: Critiques, Comments & Replies, General, Validity Tags: General
Ishibashi, M., Uchiumi, C., Jung, M., Aizawa, N., Makita, K., Nakamura, Y., & Daisuke, N. (2016). Differences in brain hemodynamics in response to achromatic and chromatic cards of the Rorschach: A fMRI study. Rorschachiana, 37, 41-57. doi:10.1027/1192-5604/a000076
AbstractIn order to investigate the effects of color stimuli of the Rorschach inkblot method (RIM), the cerebral activity of 40 participants with no history of neurological or psychiatric illness was scanned while they engaged in the Rorschach task. A scanned image of the ten RIM inkblots was projected onto a screen in the MRI scanner. Cerebral activation in response to five achromatic color cards and five chromatic cards were compared. As a result, a significant increase in brain activity was observed in bilateral visual areas V2 and V3, parietooccipital junctions, pulvinars, right superior temporal gyrus, and left premotor cortex for achromatic color cards (p < .001). For the cards with chromatic color, significant increase in brain activity was observed in left visual area V4 and left orbitofrontal cortex (p < .001). Furthermore, a conjoint analysis revealed various regions were activated in responding to the RIM. The neuropsychological underpinnings of the response process, as described by Acklin and Wu-Holt (1996), were largely confirmed.
Year Published: 2016 Author: Aizawl, N. , Daisuke, N., Ishibashi, M., Jung, M., Makita, K. , Nakamura, Y. , Uchiumi, C. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, General Tags: General, Neuropsychology
Iwasa, K., & Ogawa, T. (2016). Psychological basis of the relationship between the Rorschach Texture response and adult attachment: The mediational role of the accessibility of tactile knowledge. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98, 238-246. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2015.1099540
AbstractThis study clarifies the psychological basis for the linkage between adult attachment and the texture response on the Rorschach by examining the mediational role of the accessibility of tactile knowledge. Japanese undergraduate students (n D 35) completed the Rorschach Inkblot Method, the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale for General Objects (Nakao & Kato, 2004) and a lexical decision task designed to measure the accessibility of tactile knowledge. A mediation analysis revealed that the accessibility of tactile knowledge partially mediates the association between attachment anxiety and the texture response. These results suggest that our hypothetical model focusing on the response process provides a possible explanation of the relationship between the texture response and adult attachment.
Year Published: 2016 Author: Iwasa, K., Ogawa, T. Category: Tags: International (non US)
Jimura, K., Konishi, S., Asari, T., & Miyashita, Y. (2009). Involvement of medial prefrontal cortex in emotion during feedback presentation. Neuroreport, 20, 886-890. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e32832c5f4d.
AbstractIt has been suggested that the posterior medial prefrontal cortex (pMPFC) implements cognitive functions involved during negative feedback processing. It has also been suggested that the presentation of the feedback elicits emotional processes. This functional MRI study examined whether pMPFC was associated with the emotional component in feedback processing. Participants were exposed to feedback while performing a version of a motion prediction task. The pMPFC was activated during negative feedback presentation and emotion-related activity was extracted from the pMPFC activation through parametric imaging analysis. It was found that the emotional pMPFC activity was greater in participants who scored higher on depressive mood scales. The results suggest that pMPFC also implements feedback-related emotional functions, which individually vary depending on depressive moods.
Year Published: 2009 Author: Asari, T., Jimura, K., Konishi, S., Miyashita, Y. Category: Forensic Tags: General, Neuropsychology
Katko, N. J., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L., & Bombel, G. (2010). A principal components analysis of Rorschach aggression and hostility variables. Journal of Personality Assessment, 62, 594-598. doi:10.1080/00223890902936116
AbstractWe examined the structure of 9 Rorschach variables related to hostility and aggression (Aggressive Movement, Morbid, Primary Process Aggression, Secondary Process Aggression, Aggressive Content, Aggressive Past, Strong Hostility, Lesser Hostility) in a sample of medical students (N = 225) from the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study (The Johns Hopkins University, 1999). Principal components analysis revealed2 dimensions accounting for 58% of the total variance. These dimensions extended previous findings for a 2-component model of Rorschach aggressive imagery that had been identified using just 5 or 6 marker variables (Baity & Hilsenroth, 1999; Liebman, Porcerelli, & Abell, 2005).In light of this evidence, we draw an empirical link between the historical research literature and current studies of Rorschach aggression and hostility that helps organize their findings. We also offer suggestions for condensing the array of aggression-related measures to simplify Rorschach aggression scoring.
Year Published: 2010 Author: Bombel, G., Katko, N. J., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation Tags: Aggression/Aggressive Behavior
Kivisalu, T. M., Lewey, J. H., Shaffer, T. W., & Canfield, M. L. (2016). An investigation of interrater reliability for the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R–PAS) in a nonpatient U.S. sample. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98,, 382-390. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2015.1118380
AbstractThe Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R–PAS) aims to provide an evidence-based approach to administration, coding, and interpretation of the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM). R–PAS analyzes individualized communications given by respondents to each card to code a wide pool of possible variables. Due to the large number of possible codes that can be assigned to these responses, it is important to consider the concordance rates among different assessors. This study investigated interrater reliability for R–PAS protocols. Data were analyzed from a nonpatient convenience sample of 50 participants who were recruited through networking, local marketing, and advertising efforts from January 2013 through October 2014. Blind recoding was used and discrepancies between the initial and blind coders’ ratings were analyzed for each variable with SPSS yielding percent agreement and intraclass correlation values. Data for Location, Space, Contents, Synthesis, Vague, Pairs, Form Quality, Populars, Determinants, and Cognitive and Thematic codes are presented. Rates of agreement for 1,168 responses were higher for more simplistic coding (e.g., Location), whereas agreement was lower for more complex codes (e.g., Cognitive and Thematic codes). Overall, concordance rates achieved good to excellent agreement. Results suggest R–PAS is an effective method with high interrater reliability supporting its empirical basis.
Year Published: 2016 Author: Canfield, M. L., Kivisalu, T. M., Lewey, J. H., Shaffer, T. W. Category: Reliability Tags:
Kivisalu, T. M., Lewey, J. H., Shaffer, T. W., & Canfield, M. L. (2017). Correction to: An investigation of interrater reliability for the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R–PAS) in a nonpatient U.S. sample. Journal of Personality Assessment, 99, 558-560. doi:10.1080/00223891.2017.1325244
AbstractIn our original article, we computed and reported interrater reliability using intraclass correlations (ICCs). We subsequently discovered that instead of the average measure ICCs that we reported, we should have been reporting single measure ICCs. Because average measure ICCs are always higher than single measure ICCs, the interrater reliability values we reported are inflated. In addition, technically, dichotomous decisions like those in our study are typically calculated using the kappa coefficient. Although kappa will return results virtually identical to single measure ICCs, we decided to report a statistic that is more familiar to readers for dichotomous decisions in interrater reliability. We thank Joni L. Mihura for her very valuable assistance in correcting these results.
Year Published: 2017 Author: Canfield, M. L., Kivisalu, T. M., Lewey, J. H., Shaffer, T. W. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Reliability Tags:
Kivisto, A. J., Gacono, C., & Medoff, D. (2013). Does the R-PAS meet standards for forensic use? Considerations with introducing a new Rorschach coding system. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 13, 389-410.
AbstractThe Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) was introduced in 2011 as an alternative to Exner’s Comprehensive System (CS). This article critically evaluates the contemporary use of the R-PAS in forensic contexts. The standing of the R-PAS in relation to relevant legal standards, professional guidelines, and published professional models is considered. Normative reference data, revised administration procedures, and general acceptance are discussed, and questions surrounding the comparability of the R-PAS to the CS are explored. Historical transitions to revised versions of existing assessment procedures are reviewed with particular attention to the recurrent question of comparability and how such concerns were addressed. Although the R-PAS shows signi?cant promise, fully adopting it into current forensic practice may be premature.
Year Published: 2013 Author: Gacono, C., Gacono, C. B., Kivisto, A. J., Medoff, D. Category: Forensic, Norms Tags: Court/Legal
Kivisto, A. J., & Swan, S. A. (2013). Rorschach measures of aggression: A laboratory-based validity study. Journal of Personality Assessment, 95, 38-45. doi:10.1080/00223891.2012.713882
AbstractThis study sought to complement the archival research designs that have established the empirical foundations of Rorschach aggression scores, including Exner’s (2003) Aggressive Movement (AG) score and Meloy and Gacono’s (1992) Aggressive Content (AgC), Aggressive Past (AgPast),and Aggressive Potential (AgPot) variables. Utilizing a highly controlled laboratory-based aggression paradigm and self-report measures of violence history in a sample of 35 undergraduate males with an average age of 19.38 (SD = 2.11), this study found that only AgC was positively associated with in vivo aggression (r = .40, p = .02). None of the Rorschach measures of aggression were significantly associated with self-reported violence history, although there were several trends approaching significance. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed.
Year Published: 2013 Author: Kivisto, A. J., Swan, S. A. Category: Validity Tags: Aggression/Aggressive Behavior
Lilienfeld, S. O., Wood, J. M., & Garb, H. N. (2000). The scientific status of projective techniques. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 1, 27–66.
AbstractAlthough projective techniques continue to be widely used in clinical and forensic settings, their scientific status remains highly controversial In this monograph, we review the current state of the literature concerning the psychometric properties (norms, reliability, validity, incremental validity, treatment utility) of three major projective instruments: Rorschach lnkblot Test, Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), and human figure drawings. We conclude that there is empirical support for the validity of a small number of indexes derived from the Rorschach and TAT. However, the substantial majority of Rorschach and TAT indexes are not empirically supported. The validity evidence for human figure drawings is even more limited. With a few exceptions, projective indexes have not consistently demonstrated incremental validity above and beyond other psychometric data. In addition, we summa- rize the results of a new meta-analysis intended to examine the capacity of these three instruments to detect child sexual abuse. Although some projective instruments were better than chance at detecting child sexual abuse, there were virtually no replicated findings across independent investigative teams. This meta-analysis also provides the first clear evidence of substantial file drawer effects in the projectives literature, as the effect sizes from published studies markedly exceeded those from unpublished studies. We conclude with recommendations regarding the (a) construction of projective techniques with adequate validity, (b) forensic and clinical use of projective techniques, and (c) education and training of future psychologists regarding projective techniques.
Year Published: 2000 Author: Garb, H. N., Lilienfeld, S. O., Wood, J. M. Category: Child/Adolescent, Critiques, Comments & Replies, Forensic, General, Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Norms, Reliability, Statistical, Trauma, Validity Tags: Court/Legal, General, Offender, Psychopathology
Lis, A., Parolin, L., Calvo, V., Zennaro, A., & Meyer, G. J. (2007). The impact of administration and inquiry on Rorschach Comprehensive System protocols in a national reference sample. Journal of Personality Assessment, 89 , S193-S200. doi: 10.1080/00223890701583614
AbstractWe investigated the impact of administration and inquiry skills on Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1974, 1991, 1993) protocols collected for the Italian adult nonpatient reference sample. The same research team collected CS protocols on two occasions. The initial reference sample (N = 212; Lis, Rossi, & Priha, 1998) was collected under the supervision of experienced psychologists who carefully studied CS administration and scoring procedures (Exner, 1986, 1990, 1993). The second sample (N = 101; Lis, Zennaro, Calvo, & Salcuni, 2001) was collected after the team obtained additional and sustained CS training from Rorschach workshops certified instructors. Both samples were scored, reliably but they showed large differences on many codes, with protocols from the second sample being richer and more complex than the first. The results indicate that administration skills can have a dramatic impact on CS protocols and may contribute to variations in samples collected by different investigators. Training standards should be devised to insure uniform administration procedures are followed when collecting CS protocols.
Year Published: 2007 Author: Calvo, V., Lis, A., Meyer, G. J., Parolin, L., Zennaro, A. Category: General, Reliability, Statistical Tags: General
Malone, J. C., Stein, M. B., Slavin-Mulford, J., Bello, I., Sinclair, S. J., & Blais, M. A. (2013). Seeing red: Affect modulation and chromatic color responses on the Rorschach. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 77, 70-93. doi:10.1521/bumc.2013.77.1.70
AbstractPsychoanalytic theories suggest that color perception on the Rorschach relates to affective modulation. However, this idea has minimal empirical support. Using a clinical sample, the authors explored the cognitive and clinical correlates of Rorschach color determinants and differences among four affective modulation subtypes: Controlled, Balanced, Under-Controlled, and Flooded. Subtypes were differentiated by measures of affective regulation, reality testing/confusion, and personality traits. Initial support for the relationship of chromatic color response styles and affective modulation was found.
Year Published: 2013 Author: Bello, I., Blais, M. A., Malone, J. C., Sinclair, S. J., Slavin-Mulford, J., Stein, M. B. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation Tags: Neuropsychology
Meng, X. & Li, T. (2015) Differences of Ego Impairment Index of Rorschach test between patients with schizophrenia and normal individuals. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 29, 522-527. {ARTICLE TEXT IN CHINESE)
AbstractObjective: To investigate the differences of Ego Impairment Index ( ffi) of Rorschach test between patients with schizophrenia and nonnal individuals. Methods: Totally 60 patients with schizophrenia (17 -53 years old) meeting the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and 60 age-and gender-matched nonnal subjects were involved in this study. The Rorschach ink blots test was used in both patients and nonnal subjects. The Ego Impairment Index ( Ell) of all the participants were calculated on the basis of their responses to the Rorschach ink blots test The Ell and the subcomponents of it ( including distorted fonn quality, weighted sum of cognitive processing errors, distorted perceptions of human movement, critical content, good human representation, and poor human representation) of the two samples were compared to explore Ell's discrimination to patients and nonnal individuals. Results: The score of Ell [ ( 0. 7 ± 1. 7) vs. ( -0. 9 ± 0. 9)], distorted fonn quality [ ( 6. 2 ± 2. 3) vs.( 3. 4 ± 2.6 )], weighted sum of cognitive processing errors [(14.0 ± 6.5) vs.(7.2 ± 4.2)],distorted perceptions of human movement[(0.7 ± 1.2) vs.(0.3 ± 0.7)], and poor human representation [ (3. 1 ± 2. 7) vs. ( 1. 8 ± 1. 8) J were higher in patients than in normal participants. No significant differences were found for the score of dude human representation and critical content between the two groups (Ps <0.05). The result of Diagnostic Test showed that when EII equaling to -.5, the sensitivity, specificity, and Youden Index of it to distinguish patients from normal individuals were .91, .75, and .66 respectively. Conclusion: It suggests that the ego functions of patients with schizophrenia have become serious damage compared with normal individuals. The EII of Rorschach test has high sensitivity while relatively low specificity in discriminating patients with schizophrenia, which needs to be further perfected.
Year Published: 2015 Author: Li, T. , Meng, X. Category: General, Statistical, Validity Tags: International (non US), Psychopathology, Psychosis
Meyer, G. J. (1992). Response frequency problems in the Rorschach: Clinical and research implications with suggestions for the future. Journal of Personality Assessment, 58, 231-244. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa5802_2
AbstractThis article focuses on clinical and research problems associated with response frequency (R) being a variable in the Rorschach. Despite the fact that variations in R directly contribute to 50% of the explainable variance among Rorschach raw scores, there is a dearth of empirical evidence to document what R actually measures. Furthermore, in the practical use of the Rorschach's structural data, R is considered to be a nuisance variable that is controlled and not deemed interpretively significant. Given this information, two research agendas are proposed. The first is to more thoroughly determine whether R measures anything of substantial clinical importance. The second is to evaluate systematically the relative merits of making R a constant rather than a variable through use of an R-controlled method of Rorschach administration. This strategy would resolve many of the psychometric problems related to R. Introducing greater structure and clearer expectations to the task may also sharpen the Rorschach's ability to assess and predict important aspects of personality. However, significant disadvantages would also result from this change in administration. Both sides of the issue are discussed in some detail.
Year Published: 1992 Author: Meyer, G. J. Category: Statistical, Validity Tags: General
Meyer, G. J. (1993). The impact of response frequency on the Rorschach constellation indices and on their validity with diagnostic and MMPI-2 criteria. Journal of Personality Assessment, 60, 153-180. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa6001_13
AbstractI first examined the effects of response frequency (R) on the Comprehensive System's constellation indices (Exner, 1991). R is significantly associated with 26 of the 29 constellation criteria that are based on raw numbers and significantly correlated with total scores on each of the constellations. I then examined how R impacts the external validity of the constellations. The ability of the Schizophrenia Index and the Suicide Constellation to discriminate diagnostic groups appears to be impaired when protocols deviate from average length, whereas the Hypervigilance Index (HVI) appears most diagnostic of a paranoid condition when it is relatively elevated in brief records. R also clearly mediates the relationship between the Rorschach and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) criteria. In lengthy protocols, many of the cross-method convergent correlations between appropriate MMPI-2 scales and the Depression Index, Obsessive Style Index, and HVI are quite high and approach the maximum found in personality research. In brief protocols, there are strong negative correlations between these constellations and self-reports of depression and interpersonal distress. Implications from these findings for the integration of assessment methods are discussed.
Year Published: 1993 Author: Meyer, G. J. Category: Validity Tags:
Meyer, G. J. (1996). The Rorschach and MMPI: Toward a more scientifically differentiated understanding of cross-method assessment. Journal of Personality Assessment, 67, 558-578.
AbstractReasons for Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and Rorschach disagreement at the nomothetic level are explored. Building on an understanding of measurement distinctions from other sciences, it is proposed that the Rorschach and MMPI procedures are differentially sensitive to unique manifestations of personality. By necessity, each method is then also recognized as having a limited scope of effectiveness, such that neither can provide a complete picture of personality in its full complexity. Drawing on the more extensive self-report literature, the idiosyncracies and limited scope of the self-report method are documented. Finally, an ideographically rooted, cross-method, configural model is proposed for validation research in personality assessment. Several examples consistent with this approach are drawn from the assessment literature and discussed.
Year Published: 1996 Author: Meyer, G. J. Category: Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Validity Tags: General
Meyer, G. J. (1997). On the integration of personality assessment methods: The Rorschach and MMPI. Journal of Personality Assessment, 68, 297-330. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa6802_5
AbstractDespite being the most studied and used personality assessment tools, data from the Rorschach and MMPI generally disagree (Archer & Krishnamurthy, 1993a, 1993b). Independence is proposed to result from at least 3 factors: (a) the methods tap unique levels of personality, (b) personality has a complex organization, and (c) response styles generate considerable method variance that must be considered in nomothetic research. These ideas led to 5 hypotheses, each of which received support. Rorschach and MMPI response styles are uncorrelated, although response styles are quite consistent within a method family. MMPI-2 and Rorschach constructs of dysphoria, psychosis, or wariness are uncorrelated when response styles are ignored. However, robust convergent validity is evident when patients have similar response styles on each method (e.g., for dysphoria, M r = .59) and dysphoria is expressed in opposing ways on each method when response styles are discordant (i.e., M r = -.54). Data from the latter analyses were correlated with genuine clinical phenomena and implications were discussed for clinical practice and research.
Year Published: 1997 Author: Meyer, G. J. Category: Reliability, Validity Tags: Psychopathology, Psychosis
Meyer, G. J. (1999). Introduction to the special series on the utility of the Rorschach for clinical assessment. Psychological Assessment, 11 , 235–302.
AbstractPsychologists have debated the clinical utility of the Rorschach for many years. In an effort to bring greater clarity to the relevant issues, a Special Series was organized for this journal. With the exception of a neutral, meta-analytic review, articles for the Special Series were solicited from scholars known to have opposing views on the Rorschach. The authors agreed to engage in a structured, sequential, and scientifically grounded dialog that focused on strengths and limitations when using the Rorschach in applied clinical settings. The debate takes place over the course of three iterations, with later articles building on and reacting to those generated earlier. This Introduction provides a rationale and overview for the full Special Series. In addition, it briefly describes the five Special Section articles published in this issue of Psychological Assessment. Five additional articles are expected to be published in an upcoming Special Section. In combination, these two Special Sections should provide clinicians, researchers, educators, and students with the most thorough, empirically rigorous, and up-to-date evaluation of the Rorschach's clinical utility.
Year Published: 1999 Author: Meyer, G. J. Category: General, Statistical Tags: General
Meyer, G. J. (1999). The convergent validity of MMPI and Rorschach Scales: An extension using profile scores to define response and character styles on both methods and a reexamination of simple Rorschach response frequency. Journal of Personality Assessment, 72, 1-35. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa7201_1
AbstractPast research indicated the convergence of Rorschach and MMPI scales may be a function of (a) simple Rorschach response frequency (R) or (b) complex response-character styles on both methods. In this study, new criteria were developed for defining the second assumption using F and K from the MMPI and R and Lambda from the Rorschach. Although substantially different from the factor criteria used previously (KS = .45 and .30), the new criteria still produced the expected pattern of correlations among MMPI and Rorschach scales. Averaged across 17 constructs, the new criteria produced strong validity coefficients for patients with similar styles (M composite r = .50), though they were less effective for patients with discordant styles (M composite r = -.27). It was also demonstrated that R by itself does not moderate convergent validity. Rather, statistical modeling with two sets of 300 random samples (a) demonstrated the prior findings related to R were the result of sampling error and (b) supported the general hypothesis that Rorschach and MMPI scales correlate to the extent response-character styles correlate. Implications are considered.
Year Published: 1999 Author: Meyer, G. J. Category: Statistical, Validity Tags: General
Meyer, G. J. (2001). Evidence to correct misperceptions about Rorschach norms. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 8, 389-396. doi:10.1093/clipsy.8.3.389
AbstractPossible factors affecting normative shifts in Rorschach data are considered, including (a) genuine changes in mental health over time, (b) alterations in the type of target sample under consideration, (c) evolving scoring rules, and (d) variations in test administration skills or context. I show that the Comprehensive System (CS) criteria for coding form quality have changed substantially over time. Building on the extensive research of others, I also show that CS data collected around the world from people tested outside of a clinical context look somewhat less healthy than Exner's reference sample of socially/vocationally functioning nonpatients but somewhat more healthy than Exner's reference sample of people starting outpatient psychotherapy. Furthermore, preliminary results from Exner's new non-patient sample recruited using the same procedures as before reveals scores that are generally quite similar to the existing reference values. The assertion that CS norms overpathologize people is not supported.
Year Published: 2001 Author: Meyer, G. J. Category: Norms Tags: Demographics, International (non US), Psychopathology
Meyer, G. J. (2016). Neuropsychological factors and Rorschach performance in children. Rorschachiana, 37(1), 7–27. doi:10.1027/1192-5604/a000074
AbstractThis study uses an archival data set to correlate Rorschach scores with measures of cognitive functioning in youth, and extends the literature in three ways. First, although Wechsler-based scales of intellectual ability are criteria in the primary sample, correlates with specialized measures of neuropsychological functioning are provided in smaller subsamples, with a focus on tests of perceptual accuracy and perceptual synthesis. Second, absolute levels of cognitive ability are examined, rather than age-adjusted scores, in order to match with the non-age adjusted Rorschach scores. Third, the results expand the relevant research literature on Comprehensive System scores and provide novel data for scores in the Rorschach Performance Assessment System. Findings showed an expected pattern of correlations for Rorschach scores of organizational activity, synthesized responses, perceptual accuracy, conceptual complexity, and complex perceptual representations. The Rorschach scores most correlated with neuropsychological perceptual synthesis skills were those related to perceptual accuracy and those requiring complex perceptual representations, although Rorschach scores tended to be more strongly associated with verbal abilities than with perceptual organizational skills. These data provide further evidence for the validity of selected Rorschach scores and contribute to an understanding of the cognitive characteristics linked to various types of Rorschach responses.
Year Published: 2016 Author: Meyer, G. J. Category: Child/Adolescent, Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Validity Tags: Neuropsychology
Meyer, G. J., & Archer, R. P. (2001). The hard science of Rorschach research: What do we know and where do we go? Psychological Assessment, 13, 486-502. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.13.4.486
AbstractAs the final article in the Special Series on "The Utility of the Rorschach for Clinical Assessment," the authors provide an overview of this instrument's current status. They begin with a thorough review of global and focused meta-analyses, including an expanded analysis of K. C. H. Parker, R. K. Hanson, and J. Hunsley's (1988) data set, and conclude that Rorschach, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, and IQ scales each produce roughly similar effect size magnitudes, although all tests have greater validity for some purposes than for others. Because this evidentiary foundation justifies addressing other issues, the authors build on contributions to the Special Series to identify 11 salient theoretical and empirical gaps in the Rorschach knowledge base and make recommendations for addressing these challenges to further the evolution of the Rorschach and document its strengths and inherent limitations.
Year Published: 2001 Author: Archer, R. P., Meyer, G. J. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Norms, Reliability, Validity Tags:
Meyer, G. J., & Eblin, J. J. (2012). An overview of the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS). Psychological Injury and Law, 5, 107-121. doi:10.1007/s12207-012-9130-7
AbstractWe provide an overview of the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS; Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard, & Erdberg, 2011). After providing a general introduction to Rorschach-based assessment, the rationale and features of R-PAS are outlined. As part of this discussion, some of the ways in which R-PAS differs from the Comprehensive System (CS) (Exner, 2003) are delineated.
Year Published: 2012 Author: Eblin, J. J., Meyer, G. J. Category: General, Reliability, Validity Tags: General
Meyer, G. J., Erdberg, P., & Shaffer, T. W. (2007). Toward international normative reference data for the Comprehensive System. Journal of Personality Assessment, 89, S201-S216. doi:10.1080/00223890701629342
AbstractWe build on the work of all the authors contributing to this Special Supplement by summarizing findings across their samples of data, and we also draw on samples published elsewhere. Using 21 samples of adult data from 17 countries we create a composite set of internationally-based reference means and standard deviations from which we compute T-scores for each sample. Figures illustrate how the scores in each sample are distributed and how the samples compare across variables in eight Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003) clusters. The adult samples from around the world are generally quite similar, and thus we encourage clinicians to integrate the composite international reference values into their clinical interpretation of protocols. However, the 31 child and adolescent samples from 5 countries produce unstable and often quite extreme values on many scores. Until the factors contributing to the variability among these samples are more fully understood, we discourage clinicians from using many CS scores to make nomothetic, score-based inferences about psychopathology in children and adolescents.
Year Published: 2007 Author: Erdberg, P., Meyer, G. J., Shaffer, S. A. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Norms Tags: International (non US)
Meyer, G. J., Finn, S. E., Eyde, L., Kay, G. G., Moreland, K. L., Dies, R. R., Eisman, E. J., Kubiszyn, T. W., & Reed, G. M. (2001). Psychological testing and psychological assessment: A review of evidence and issues. American Psychologist, 56, 128-165. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.56.2.128
AbstractThis article summarizes evidence and issues associated with psychological assessment. Data from more than 125 meta-analyses on test validity and 800 samples examining multimethod assessment suggest 4 general conclusions: (a) Psychological test validity is strong and compelling, (b) psychological test validity is comparable to medical test validity, (c) distinct assessment methods provide unique sources of information, and (d) clinicians who rely exclusively on interviews are prone to incomplete understandings. Following principles for optimal nomothetic research, the authors suggest that a multimethod assessment battery provides a structured means for skilled clinicians to maximize the validity of individualized assessments. Future investigations should move beyond an examination of test scales to focus more on the role of psychologists who use tests as helpful tools to furnish patients and referral sources with professional consultation.
Year Published: 2001 Author: Dies, R. R., Eisman, E. J., Eyde, L., Finn, S. E. , Kay, G. G., Kubiszyn, T. W., Meyer, G. J., Moreland, K. L., Reed, G. M. Category: Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Validity Tags: General
Meyer, G. J., Giromini, L., Viglione, D. J., Reese, J. B., & Mihura, J. L. (2015). The association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with Rorschach scores. Assessment, 22, 46-64.
AbstractWe examined the association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with 60 Rorschach scores using three clinical and nonclinical samples of adults and youths (ns = 640, 249, and 241). As anticipated for our data sets, there were no reliable associations for gender, ethnicity, or adult age. However, in adults years of education was associated with variables indicative of complexity, the articulation of subtlety and nuance, cognitive synthesis, and coping resources. In the clinical sample of youths, increasing age was primarily associated with more conventional perception and less illogical thought processes. Limitations are discussed in conjunction with further research that could address them, along with implications for applied practice.
Year Published: 2015 Author: Giromini, L., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L., Reese, J. B., Viglione, D. J. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation Tags: Demographics
Meyer, G. J., Hilsenroth, M. J., Baxter, D., Exner Jr., J. E., Fowler, J. C., Piers, C. C., & Resnick, J. (2002). An examination of interrater reliability for scoring the Rorschach Comprehensive System in eight data sets. Journal of Personality Assessment, 78, 219-274. doi:10.1207/S15327752JPA7802_03
AbstractIn this article, we describe interrater reliability for the Comprehensive System (CS; Exner. 1993) in 8 relatively large samples, including (a) students, (b) experienced re- searchers, (c) clinicians, (d) clinicians and then researchers, (e) a composite clinical sample (i.e., a to d), and 3 samples in which randomly generated erroneous scores were substituted for (f) 10%, (g) 20%, or (h) 30% of the original responses. Across samples, 133 to 143 statistically stable CS scores had excellent reliability, with median intraclass correlations of.85, .96, .97, .95, .93, .95, .89, and .82, respectively. We also demonstrate reliability findings from this study closely match the results derived from a synthesis of prior research, CS summary scores are more reliable than scores assigned to individual responses, small samples are more likely to generate unstable and lower reliability estimates, and Meyer's (1997a) procedures for estimating response segment reliability were accurate. The CS can be scored reliably, but because scoring is the result of coder skills clinicians must conscientiously monitor their accuracy.
Year Published: 2002 Author: Baxter, D., Exner Jr., J. E., Fowler, J. C., Hilsenroth, M. J., Meyer, G. J., Piers, C. C., Resnick, J. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Reliability, Statistical Tags:
Meyer, G. J., Hsiao, W.-C., Viglione, D. J., Mihura, J. L., & Abraham, L. M. (2013). Rorschach scores in applied clinical practice: A survey of perceived validity by experienced clinicians. Journal of Personality Assessment, 95, 351-365. doi:10.1080/00223891.2013.770399
AbstractWe surveyed practicing clinicians who regularly used the Rorschach about the perceived clinical validity of specific Rorschach scores from many coding systems. The survey included quantitative feedback on the validity of specific variables as well as qualitative input in several areas, including the validity of specific variables, the potentially unique information that can be obtained from them, coding challenges associated with Comprehensive System (CS) codes, and recommendations for CS developments. Participants were recruited by applying a snowball sampling strategy. Based on responses from 246 experienced clinicians from 26 countries, composite judgments on rated variables were quite reliable (e.g., Ma = .95 across 88 CS variables), despite limited agreement among any 2 judges. The aggregated judgments clearly differentiated among scores that were considered more and less clinically valid and the overall results aligned with recently obtained meta-analytic conclusions from the traditional validity literature (Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, & Bombel, 2012). The judges also provided guidance concerning revisions and enhancements that would facilitate Rorschach-based assessment in the future. We discuss the implication of the quantitative and qualitative findings and provide suggestions for future directions based on the results.
Year Published: 2013 Author: Abraham, L. M., Hsiao, W.-C., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L., Viglione, D. J. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Validity Tags:
Meyer, G. J., Katko, N. J., Mihura, J. L., Klag, M. J., & Meoni, L. A. (2017). The incremental validity of self-report and performance-based methods for assessing hostility to predict cardiovascular disease in physicians. Journal of Personality Assessment. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/00223891.2017.1306780
AbstractWe evaluated the utility of an integrative, multimethod approach for assessing hostility-related constructs to predict premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature coronary heart disease (CHD) using participants from the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study, which was designed to identify risk factors for heart disease. Participants were assessed at baseline while in medical school from 1946 to 1962 (M age = 24.6) and have been followed annually since then. Baseline assessment included individually administered Rorschach protocols (N = 416) scored for aggressive imagery (i.e., Aggressive Content, Aggressive Past) and self-reports of 3 possible anger responses to stress. Cox regression analyses predicting morbidity or mortality by age 55 revealed a significant interaction effect; high levels of Aggressive Content with high self-reported hostility predicted an increased rate of premature CVD and CHD, and incrementally predicted the rate of these events after controlling for the significant covariates of smoking (CVD and CHD) and cholesterol (CHD) that were also assessed at baseline. The hostility and anger measures, as well as other baseline covariates, were not predictors of CVD risk factors assessed at midlife during follow-up. Overall, this integrative model of hostility illustrates the potential value of multimethod assessment to areas of health psychology and preventive medicine.
Year Published: 2017 Author: Katko, N. J., Klag, M. J., Meoni, L. A., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L. Category: General, Statistical, Validity Tags: Aggression/Aggressive Behavior, General
Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L., & Smith, B. L. (2005). The interclinician reliability of Rorschach interpretation in four data sets. Journal of Personality Assessment, 84, 296-314. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa8403_09
AbstractTo examine agreement on Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2004) interpretations, 55 patient protocols were interpreted by 3 to 8 clinicians across 4 data sets on a representative set of 29 characteristics. Substantial reliability was observed across data sets, although a problematic design produced lower results in one. Unexpectedly, a Q-sort task had slightly lower reliability than a simple rating task. As expected, scales that summarized judgments had higher agreement than judgments to individual interpretive statements, and some clinicians produced more generalizable inferences than others. Interpretations for all clinicians were more strongly associated with patients' psychometric true scores (aggregated judgment M range = .82 to .92) than with the judgments of other clinicians (range = .76 to .89). Compared to meta-analyses of interrater reliability in psychology and medicine, the findings indicate these clinicians could reliably interpret Rorschach CS data.
Year Published: 2005 Author: Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L., Smith, B. L. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Reliability Tags:
Meyer, G. J., Riethmiller, R. J., Brooks, R. D., Benoit, W. A., & Handler, L. (2000). A replication of Rorschach and MMPI-2 convergent validity. Journal of Personality Assessment, 74, 175-215. doi:10.1207/S15327752JPA7402_3
AbstractWe replicated prior research on Rorschach and MMPI-2 convergent validity by testing 8 hypotheses in a new sample of patients. We also extended prior research by developing criteria to include more patients and by applying the same procedures to 2 self-report tests: the MMPI-2 and the MCMI-II. Results supported our hypotheses and paralleled the prior findings. Furthermore, 3 different tests for methodological artifacts could not account for the results. Thus, the convergence of Rorschach and MMPI-2 constructs seems to be partially a function of how patients interact with the tests. When patients approach each test with a similar style, conceptually aligned constructs tend to correlate. Although this result is less robust, when patients approach each test in an opposing manner, conceptually aligned constructs tend to be negatively correlated. When test interaction styles are ignored, MMPI-2 and Rorschach constructs tend to be uncorrelated, unless a sample just happens to possess a correlation between Rorschach and MMPI-2 stylistic variables. Remaining ambiguities and suggestions for further advances are discussed.
Year Published: 2000 Author: Benoit, W. A., Brooks, R. D., Handler, L., Meyer, G. J., Riethmiller, R. J. Category: General, Reliability, Validity Tags:
Meyer, G. J., Shaffer, T. W., Erdberg, P., & Horn, S. L. (2015). Addressing issues in the development and use of the Composite International Reference Values as Rorschach norms for adults. Journal of Personality Assessment, 97, 330-347. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2014.961603
AbstractThis article describes 3 studies evaluating normative reference data for the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003, 2007), with a particular focus on the viability of the Composite International Reference Values (CIRVs) that were compiled from 21 adult studies by Meyer, Erdberg, and Shaffer (2007). Study 1 documented how the CIRV norms are virtually identical when organized into 3 groups differentiated by the quality of their data collection effort, including an optimal group of 4 samples that relied on multiple experienced examiners and provided ongoing quality control over administration and coding. Analyses also showed that relative to the group of more optimal samples, the group of less optimal samples did not produce more variability in summary scores within or across samples or lower interrater reliability for coding. Study2 used the existing CS reference norms to generate T scores for the CIRV means and documented how the CS norms make other samples of healthy nonpatients look psychologically impaired in multiple domains. Study 3 documented with examples from 4 different countries how 2 sets of within-country local norms produced notably different results on some variables, which compromises the ability of local norms to be used instead of the CIRVs. Taken together, the 3 studies provide support for the use of CIRVs in clinical practice as norms that are generalizable across samples, settings, languages, and cultures and that account for the natural variability that is present when clinicians and researchers contend with the ambiguity contained in the standard CS reference materials concerning the proper ways to administer and code. We conclude by urging CS users to rely on the CIRVs when making clinical inferences and to adopt alternative methods of ensuring they are following cohesively standardized administration and coding guidelines.
Year Published: 2015 Author: Erdberg, P., Horn, S. L., Meyer, G. J., Shaffer, T. W. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Norms Tags: International (non US)
Meyer, G. J., Viglione, D. J., & Exner Jr., J. E. (2001). Superiority of Form% over Lambda for research on the Rorschach Comprehensive System. Journal of Personality Assessment, 76, 68-75. doi:10.1207/S15327752JPA7601_4
AbstractLambda is an important variable in the Rorschach Comprehensive System. However, because of the way it is calculated it has properties that can produce problems for parametric statistical analyses. We illustrate these difficulties and encourage the use of Form% (i.e., pure form responses/total responses) instead of Lambda in research. Form% is easy to calculate, and it is conceptually and mathematically comparable to Lambda. Because it is much more normally distributed, Form% is suitable to use in parametric analyses (e.g., t tests, analyses of variance, correlations, factor analyses, multiple regressions).
Year Published: 2001 Author: Exner Jr., J. E., Meyer, G. J., Viglione, D. J. Category: Statistical Tags:
Meyer, G.J. (2017). What Rorschach performance can add to assessing and understanding personality. International Journal of Personality Psychology, 3, 36-49.
AbstractI provide a contemporary overview of Hermann Rorschach’s inkblot task, including how it was developed, why it seems to work as it does, and how to contextualize inferences drawn from the things that people see, say, and do while completing the task. Following this, I review the meta-analyses that have been conducted concerning Rorschach validity, several multi-sample studies concerning focused topics, and a selection of recent individual studies. The aim of this part of the article is to illustrate the validity of the Rorschach as a behavioral performance task that can provide a useful complement to self-reported characteristics – both in clinical practice and in research on per-sonality processes. Administering and coding Rorschach’s task is much more time consuming than many other sources of personality data, particularly the ubiquitous introspective self-report method. However, it is argued that Rorschach performance provides a unique source of information about people that can validly add to the assessment and understanding of personality and psychological processes. As such, despite its history of controversy, it is an instrument that is worth consideration or reconsideration by personality assessors and researchers.
Year Published: 2017 Author: Meyer, G. J. Category: General, Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Statistical, Validity Tags: General
Meyer, G. J. (2001). Introduction to the final special section in the special series on the utility of the Rorschach for clinical assessment. Psychological Assessment, 13, 419-422. doi: 10.1037//1040-3590.13.4.419
AbstractA Special Series was organized to clarify the merits of the Rorschach for clinical assessment. Except for a neutral meta-analytic review, articles were solicited from scholars known to have opposing views on the Rorschach. The authors participated in a structured, sequential, evidence-based dialogue that focused on strengths and limitations when using the Rorschach for applied purposes. The debate has taken place over 4 iterations, with later articles building on and reacting to those generated earlier. The first 5 articles in the Special Series were published earlier (G. J. Meyer, 1999), and the final 6 articles are published in this issue of Psychological Assessment. This article provides a brief overview of the full Special Series and an introduction to the 6 articles contained in this Special Section. The Special Series provides clinicians, researchers, educators, and students with a thorough review of the evidence and logic that are critical for understanding the Rorschach's strengths and limitations in clinical assessment.
Year Published: 2001 Author: Meyer, G. J. Category: Critiques, Comments & Replies, General, Norms, Statistical Tags: General
Miguel, F. K., & Pessotto, F. (2016, April 18). Projective aspects on cognitive performance: Distortions in emotional perception correlate with personality. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 29:17. DOI 10.1186/s41155-016-0036-6
AbstractSeveral approaches in psychology converge with the concept that individual characteristics may interfere with the perception and interpretation of the world. We hypothesized that such phenomenon could be identified in instruments that were not only projective techniques. The research’s goal was to study perceptive distortions in a cognitive test and their relations with personality instruments. Responses from 222 participants in the Computerized Test of Primary Emotions Perception (PEP) were rated in distortion scores, which related to perceiving emotions that were not present. We used Spearman correlations between these scores and the Rorschach Inkblot test, Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory, and tasks of Verbal and Abstract Reasoning. Results showed that the distortions were not related to intellectual abilities. Distortions of joy were associated with greater interest in interpersonal contact; love with positive view of the interactions and need for attention; fear with concerns about aggressiveness and autonomy; sadness with lower perception of damaged objects; disgust with feelings of loneliness; and anger with criticism avoidance, distrust, feelings of loneliness, and aggressive behaviour. The results support the proposal that altered perception of reality is related to affective or personality characteristics.
Year Published: 2016 Author: Miguel, F. K., Pessotto, F. Category: General Tags: General
Mihura, J. L. (2012). The necessity of multiple test methods in conducting assessments: The role of the Rorschach and self-report. Psychological Injury and Law, 5, 97-106. doi: 10.1007/s12207-012-9132-9
AbstractThis article presents a logical and empirical argument for the necessity of a multi-method approach to psychological assessment. Both in clinical and forensic psychology, self-report methods such as questionnaires and interviews are popular. The Rorschach is presented in this article as an additional test method. The article describes recent meta analyses that evaluate the construct validity of individual Rorschach scales and that serve as major guideposts in the development of a new Rorschach system (Rorschach Performance Assessment System). The combination of self report and Rorschach methods is used to discuss the importance of multi-method assessment in the context of incremental validity and dissimulation. Practically speaking, the assessor should consider the test method as an indispensable part of the formula when choosing tests, writing reports, and generally understanding the client.
Year Published: 2012 Author: Mihura, J. L. Category: Forensic Tags: Court/Legal
Mihura, J. L., Dumitrascu, N., Roy, M., & Meyer, G. J. (2017). The centrality of the response process in construct validity: An illustration via the Rorschach space response. Journal of Personality Assessment. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/00223891.2017.1306781
AbstractRecently, psychologists have emphasized the response process—that is, the psychological operations and behaviors that lead to test scores—when designing psychological tests, interpreting their results, and refining their validity. To illustrate the centrality of the response process in construct validity and test interpretation, we provide a historical, conceptual, and empirical review of the main uses of the background white space of the Rorschach cards, called space reversal (SR) and space integration (SI) in the Rorschach Performance Assessment System. We show how SR and SI's unique response processes result in different interpretations, and that reviewing their literatures with these distinct interpretations in mind produces the expected patterns of convergent and discriminant validity. That is, SR was uniquely related to measures of oppositionality; SI was uniquely related to measures of cognitive complexity; and both SR and SI were related to measures of creativity. Our review further suggests that the Comprehensive System use of a single space code for all uses of white space likely led to its lack of meta-analytic support as a measure of oppositionality (Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, & Bombel, 2013). We close by discussing the use of the response process to improve test interpretation, develop better measures, and advance the design of research.
Year Published: 2017 Author: Dumitrascu, N., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L., Roy, M. Category: Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Reliability, Validity Tags: General
Mihura, J. L., & Graceffo, R. A. (2014). Multimethod assessment and treatment planning. In C. J. Hopwood & R. F. Bornstein (Eds.), Multimethod clinical assessment (pp. 285-318). Guilford Press.
AbstractThe goal of this chapter is to illuminate the relevance of incorporating different methods of assessment into treatment planning. To date, this is a relatively novel endeavor, which may be somewhat surprising given the intuitive look between assessment and treatment. Thus, the present chapters unique in its attempt to "make the implicit, explicit" regarding the relationship that multi method assessment has with treatment planning. The basic tenet of this chapters that different assessment methods tap different aspects of personality and have implications for a person's experiences and functioning, which, in turn, uniform case conceptualization and treatment planning. Our transtheoretical approach should make the chapter relevant to a wide range of practitioners and researchers in the field.
Year Published: 2014 Author: Graceffo, R. A., Mihura, J. L. Category: General Tags: General
Mihura, J. L., & Meyer, G. J. (2015). Rorschach Inkblot Test. In R. Cautin & S. Lilienfeld (Eds.), The encyclopedia of clinical psychology. Wiley-Blackwell. doi: 10.1002/9781118625392.wbecp517
AbstractNo abstract available
Year Published: 2015 Author: Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L. Category: General Tags: General
Mihura, J. L., Meyer, G. J., Bombel, G., & Dumitrascu, N. (2015). Standards, accuracy, and questions of bias in Rorschach meta-analyses: Reply to Wood, Garb, Nezworski, Lilienfeld, and Duke (2015). Psychological Bulletin, 141, 250-260.
AbstractWood, Garb, Nezworski, Lilienfeld, and Duke (2015) found our systematic review and meta-analyses of65 Rorschach variables to be accurate and unbiased, and hence removed their previous recommendation for a moratorium on the applied use of the Rorschach. However, Wood et al. (2015) hypothesized that publication bias would exist for 4 Rorschach variables. To test this hypothesis, they replicated our meta-analyses for these 4 variables and added unpublished dissertations to the pool of articles. In the process, they used procedures that contradicted their standards and recommendations for sound Rorschach research, which consistently led to significantly lower effect sizes. In reviewing their meta analyses, we found numerous methodological errors, data errors, and omitted studies. In contrast to their strict requirements for interrater reliability in the Rorschach meta-analyses of other researchers, they did not report interrater reliability for any of their coding and classification decisions. In addition, many of their conclusions were based on a narrative review of individual studies and post hoc analyses rather than their meta-analytic findings. Finally, we challenge their sole use of dissertations to test publication bias because (a) they failed to reconcile their conclusion that publication bias was present with the analyses we conducted showing its absence, and (b) we found numerous problems with dissertation study quality. In short, one cannot rely on the findings or the conclusions reported in Wood et al.
Year Published: 2015 Author: Bombel, G., Dumitrascu, N., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L. Category: Critiques, Comments & Replies, Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Reliability Tags:
Mihura, J. L., Meyer, G. J., Bombel, G., & Dumitrascu, N. (2016). On conducting construct validity meta-analyses for the Rorschach: A reply to Tibon Czopp and Zeligman (2016). Journal of Personality Assessment, 98, 343-350.
AbstractWe respond to Tibon Czopp and Zeligman’s (2016) critique of our systematic reviews and meta-analyses of65 Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) variables published in Psychological Bulletin (2013). The authors endorsed our supportive findings but critiqued the same methodology when used for the 13 unsupported variables. Unfortunately, their commentary was based on significant misunderstandings of our meta analytic method and results, such as thinking we used introspectively assessed criteria in classifying levels of support and reporting only a subset of our externally assessed criteria. We systematically address their arguments that our construct label and criterion variable choices were inaccurate and, therefore, meta analytic validity for these 13 CS variables was artificially low. For example, the authors created new construct labels for these variables that they called “the customary CS interpretation,” but did not describe their methodology nor provide evidence that their labels would result in better validity than ours. They cite studies they believe we should have included; we explain how these studies did not fit our inclusion criteria and that including them would have actually reduced the relevant CS variables’ meta-analytic validity. Ultimately, criticisms alone cannot change meta-analytic support from negative to positive; Tibon Czopp and Zeligman would need to conduct their own construct validity meta-analyses.
Year Published: 2016 Author: Bombel, G., Dumitrascu, N., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L. Category: Critiques, Comments & Replies, Literature Review/Meta-Analysis Tags:
Mihura, J. L., Meyer, G. J., Dumitrascu, N., & Bombel, G. (2013). The validity of individual Rorschach variables: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the Comprehensive System. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 548-605. doi: 10.1037/a0029406
AbstractWe systematically evaluated the peer-reviewed Rorschach validity literature for the 65 main variables in the popular Comprehensive System (CS). Across 53 meta-analyses examining variables against externally assessed criteria (e.g., observer ratings, psychiatric diagnosis), the mean validity was r _ .27 (k _770) as compared to r _ .08 (k _ 386) across 42 meta-analyses examining variables against introspectively assessed criteria (e.g., self-report). Using Hemphill’s (2003) data-driven guidelines for interpreting the magnitude of assessment effect sizes with only externally assessed criteria, we found 13 variables had excellent support (r _ .33, p _ .001; _ FSN _ 50), 17 had good support (r _ .21, p _ .05, FSN _ 10),10 had modest support (p _ .05 and either r _ .21, FSN _ 10, or r _ .15–.20, FSN _ 10), 13 had little(p _ .05 and either r _ _ .15 or FSN _ 10) or no support (p _ .05), and 12 had no construct-relevant validity studies. The variables with the strongest support were largely those that assess cognitive and perceptual processes (e.g., Perceptual-Thinking Index, Synthesized Response); those with the least support tended to be very rare (e.g., Color Projection) or some of the more recently developed scales(e.g., Egocentricity Index, Isolation Index). Our findings are less positive, more nuanced, and more inclusive than those reported in the CS test manual. We discuss study limitations and the implications for research and clinical practice, including the importance of using different methods in order to improve our understanding of people.
Year Published: 2013 Author: Bombel, G., Dumitrascu, N., Meyer, G. J., Mihura, J. L. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Literature Review/Meta-Analysis Tags:
Mihura, J. L., Roy, M., & Graceffo, R. A. (2016). Psychological assessment training in clinical psychology doctoral programs. Journal of Personality Assessment, 1-12. doi:10.1080/00223891.2016.1201978
AbstractWe surveyed American Psychological Association–accredited clinical psychology doctoral programs’ (n =83) training in psychological assessment—specifically, their coverage of various assessment topics and tests in courses and practica, and whether the training was optional or required. We report results overall and separately per training model (clinical science, scientist-practitioner, and practitioner-focused). Overall, our results suggest that psychological assessment training is as active, or even more active, than in previous years. Areas of increased emphasis include clinical interviewing and psychometrics; multimethod, outcomes, health, and collaborative or therapeutic assessment; and different types of cognitive and self-report personality tests. All or almost all practice-focused programs offered training with the Thematic Apperception Test and Rorschach compared to about half of the scientist-practitioner programs and a third of the clinical science programs. Although almost all programs reported teaching multimethod assessment, what constitutes different methods of assessing psychopathology should be clarified in future studies because many programs appear to rely on one method—self-report (especially clinical science programs). Although doctoral programs covered many assessment topics and tests in didactic courses, there appears to be a shortage of program-run opportunities for students to obtain applied assessment training. Finally, we encourage doctoral programs to be familiar with (a) internships’ assessment expectations and opportunities, (b) the professional guidelines for assessment training, and (c) the American Psychological Association’s requirements for preinternship assessment competencies.
Year Published: 2016 Author: Graceffo, R. A., Mihura, J. L., Roy, M. Category: General Tags: General
Mohammadi, M. R., Hosseininasab, A., Borjali, A., & Mazandarani, A. A. (2013). Reality testing in children with childhood-onset schizophrenia and normal children: A comparison using the Ego Impairment Index on the Rorschach. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 8, 44-50.
AbstractObjective: The aim of this study was to examine reality testing in schizophrenic children and compare it with normal children using minus responses subcomponent in ego impairment index of the Rorschach test. Methods: In a descriptive design, 20 accidentally sampled children, including 10 schizophrenic and 10 normal children, were recruited in to two groups and were compared in terms of reality testing sub component of Ego Impairment Index (EII). After initial interview, the Rorschach inkblot test was administered on the two groups, and Distorted Quality responses(FQ-) were calculated. The results were then analyzed by independent test and Cohen’s d for effect size .Results: The result of independent t-test revealed that the mean of minus responses in schizophrenic children was significantly higher than that of normal children. In addition, the usefulness of the Rorschach ego impairment index (EII) in evaluating reality testing in schizophrenic children was confirmed. In addition, it was found that defect in reality testing is one of the prominent characteristics of schizophrenic children .Conclusion: The higher minus responses in schizophrenic children indicate that schizophrenic children have weaker functioning in reality testing compared with normal children.
Year Published: 2013 Author: Borjali, A., Hosseininasab, A., Mazandarani, A. A., Mohammadi, M. R. Category: Child/Adolescent Tags: International (non US), Psychosis
Monroe, J. M., Diener, M. J., Fowler, J. C., Sexton, J. E., & Hilsenroth, M. J. (2013). Criterion validity of the Rorschach Mutuality of Autonomy (MOA) scale: A meta-analytic review. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 30, 535-566. doi:10.1037/a0033290
AbstractThe present study consisted of a meta-analytic review of the criterion validity of the Rorschach Mutuality of Autonomy (Urist, 1977) scale. Search procedures yielded 27 independent samples (total N _ 1,803, average n _ 67, SD _ 31) for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Results support the criterion validity of the Mutuality of Autonomy with an average overall weighted effect size of r _ .24,p _ .001 (95% confidence interval _ .18, .29). Publication bias analyses indicate the possibility for bias and demonstrate that the likely impact of any such bias would bring the average overall weighted effect size down to r _ .18,p _ .001 (95% confidence interval for adjusted effect size _ .11, .24). The data were not demonstrably heterogeneous (Q _ 37.67, df _ 26, p _ .07), and all between-study moderator analyses were nonsignificant (ps _ .19) with the exception of the specific type of criterion variable. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.
Year Published: 2013 Author: Diener, M. J., Fowler, J. C., Hilsenroth, M. J., Monroe, J. M., Sexton, J. E. Category: Core R-PAS Empirical Foundation, Literature Review/Meta-Analysis, Validity Tags: General
Moore, R. C., Viglione, D. J., Rosenfarb, I. S., Patterson, T. L., & Mausbach, B. T. (2013). Rorschach measures of cognition relate to everyday and social functioning in schizophrenia. Psychological Assessment, 25, 253-263. doi:10.1037/a0030546
AbstractNeurocognitive impairment and negative symptoms contribute to functional disability in people with schizophrenia. Yet, a high level of unexplained variability remains after accounting for the role of these factors. This study examined the role of thought disorder, psychological complexity, and interpersonal representations, as measured by the Rorschach, in explaining functional and social skills capacity in 72middle-aged and older outpatients with schizophrenia (mean age _ 51.2 years). Participants responded to the Rorschach administered with the R-Optimized administration instructions and scored with the Rorschach Performance Assessment System. Relationships with neuropsychological performance and psychopathology were also explored. Psychological complexity, which refers to a person’s cognitive capacity for problem solving and organizing his or her surroundings, was correlated with functional capacity (r _ .30) and social skills capacity (r _ .34). Healthy interpersonal representations were correlated with positive social skills (rs _ .24 –.28). In multiple regression models, psychological complexity accounted for significant variation in functional (_ _ .23, p _ .02) and social skills capacity(_ _ .35, p _ .01) after controlling for neurocognitive functioning and psychopathology. These data suggest that psychological complexity plays a significant role in the functional limitations seen in schizophrenia, above and beyond the contributions of neurocognitive impairment and negative symptoms. Support was also found for the impact of healthy object relations functioning with social functioning. Clinical implications include novel information for future development of cognitive remediation treatment strategies based on a patient’s developmental level of psychological capacity and healthy interpersonal schemas.
Year Published: 2013 Author: Mausbach, B. T., Moore, R. C., Patterson, T. L., Rosenfarb, I. S., Viglione, D. J. Category: General Tags: Neuropsychology, Psychosis